K-Grammar 76-115

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76. A/V -(을)ㄹ 까봐  " out of worry (fear) - "
This is used to indicate that the speaker did , or is  doing the action in the following clause out of worry or fear. when the stem ends in a consonant, add 을까봐. When ending in a vowel or ㄹ, add ㄹ까봐.
너: you (casual) 나를 : me (casual) 잡다: to catch   나: I    숨다: to hide
너가 나를 잡을까봐 나는 숨었어.(casual) -> I hid myself out of worry that you would catch me.
77. (누구를 / 뭘/ 어디를) V-아/어/해도 ( same as V-아/어/해나)  " No matter who/what/where S  V
Conjugate the verb stem. For conjugation rules, please refer to K-Grammar Basics
니:  you (casual) 만나다: to meet  나: I (casual) 상관 없다:  not to care  하다: to do
니가 누구를 만나도 나는 상관없어. (casual) -> No matter who you meet, I don't care.
= 니가  누구를 만나나 나는 상관없어
78. A/V-겠어요  " will, should"
Its infinitive form is ' A/V-겠다' and usually combined with formal ending '습니다'
내일: tomorrow  비 오다 : to rain
내일 비 오겠습니다. (formal) -> Tomorrow, it will rain.
79. V-(은)ㄴ 지 " since"
This is used to indicate that how much time has passed. When the verb stem ends in a consonant, add 은 지. When ending in a vowel or ㄹ, addㄴ지.
남자 친구: boyfriend  ~하고 : with~  헤어지다: to break up  년: year , 지나다: to pass
남자친구하고 헤어진 지 1년이 지났어. (casual) -> It has been 1 year since (I) broke up with my boyfriend.
한국: Korea 오다: to come  되다: to be, to become
한국에 온 지 2년이 되었어요. (formal) -> It has been 2 years since I came to Korea.
80. V/A (은)ㄴ 척 하다 " to pretend to V/A"
When the verb / adjective stem ends in a consonant, add 은. When ending in a vowel or ㄹ, add ㄴ. Without요 at the end, it becomes a casual talk.
모르다: not to know 그 N : that N  사실: truth
그 남자는 그 사실을 모른 척 해요. -> That guy pretends not to know the truth.
81. N밖에 " nothing but N , only N"
This is always followed by a negative form which is different from English.
나 : I (casual) 너: you (casual)  없다: not to have
나는 너밖에 없어. (casual) -> I have nothing but you.
두 명 :two people  안 : not  오다: to come
두 명밖에 안 왔어요. (formal) ->  Only two people came.
82. N씩
It refers to something being divided or repeated by its quantity or size.
저는 : I  ( formal) 하루: a day  3시간: 3 hours  공부하다: study
하루에 3시간씩 공부해요. (formal) -> I study for 3 hours a day.
알: tablet  드시다: to eat, to take ( honorific)
하루에 2알씩 드세요.( formal) -> Please take 2 tablets a day
83. V-고서  " V  and then " (same as V- 고 나서, V-고 난 후)
Add verb stem to 고서 or 고 나서 or 고 난 후
숙제: homework 하다: to do 친구: friend  N하고: with N  놀다: to play
숙제 하고 나서 친구하고 놀았어. (Casual) -> I did my homework and then played with a friend.
84. V/A (을) ㄹ걸요 , N일걸요  " Probably, I think" ( unconfirmed assumption or supposition)
This is used when the speaker is not sure about something. When V/A stem ends in a consonant , add 을걸요.  When ending in a vowel, add ㄹ걸요. Without 요 at the end, it becomes casual talk.
집: home 있다: to be
Mike  집에  있을걸요. (formal) -> I think Mike is at home.
그: that 사람: person 한국: Korea
그 사람은 한국사람일걸.( casual) -> That person is probably Korean.
85. A -아/어/해 보이다  “  to look A” (based on the outward appearance)
재미있다: to be fun, to be interesting
재미있어 보여요. -> It looks like fun ( It looks interesting)
그: that ,  가면: mask , 무섭다: to be scary
그 가면 무서워 보여요. -> That mask looks scary.
86.  V/A -기에  “ because , as”
Add a verb / Adjective stem to 기에
우린:  a short form of 우리는 ( 우리: we , 는 : comparative marker )  젋다: to be young  후회하다: to regret
우린 젊기에 후회 안해. -> Because we are young, we don’t regret
내가 보기에 그 사람은 착하지 않아. -> As I see it, that person is not nice
87. V -아/어/해지다 (Passive Voice )
It is used when the subject' s action or behavior occurs because of an action performed by someone or something else. Without 요 at the end, it becomes casual talk.
고장나다: to break  켜다: to turn on
TV가 고장났어요. 안 켜져요.-> The TV broke. It is not turned on.
그: that   사람: person  쏟다 :to spill,  N 때문에: because of N
그 사람 때문에 커피가 쏟아졌어요 -> Because of that person , my coffee was spilled.
88. V-아/어/해 보다  “ to have an experience of doing something “
Conjugate the verb and usually this  ends in - 봤어요 to indicate an experience in the past.
삼겹살 : a popular Korean dish, thick, fatty slices of pork belly meat    먹다: to eat  한국: Korea   가다: to go
삼겹살을 먹어 봤어요?  -> Have you eaten  samgyeopsal?
한국에 가 봤어요? ->  Have you been to Korea?  
89. A/V - (을)ㄹ 뿐이다  / N 일 뿐이다   “  to be merely (only, solely, just)  ~“
It is to express when there is only one available course of action or state of being.
이거: this    장난: a joke
이거 장난일 뿐이야.  ->  This  is just a joke.
저는 : I   그: that  사람: person   이름: name   N만: only N   알다: to know
저는 그 사람 이름만 알 뿐이에요.  -> I only know that person’s name.
90. N 을/를 위해(서) , V- 기 위해(서)  “ for the sake of something , in order to V
When a noun ends in a vowel, add 를 위해(서) . When ending in a consonant, add 를 위해(서) . When using a verb , just add the stem to 기 위해(서)
건강: health   매일: everyday  운동하다: to exercise
건강을 위해서  매일 운동하고 있어요. -> I am exercising everyday for my health.
건강해지다: to become healthy
건강해지기 위해 매일 운동하고 있어요.  -> I am exercising everyday in order to become healthy.
91. N (이)나  “ Just N,  “  ( when the noun is not the best option)
It’s used to indicate that the noun is  not one’s first choice but just a second best option, which is still fine. When a noun ends in a vowel, add 나. When ending in a consonant, add 이나 .
주말에: on the weekend, 영화: movie  보다: to see  
주말에 영화나 보는게 어때? - > how about just watching a movie on the weekend?
92. “      “  라고  하다   “ direct quotation “
After quotation marks, it is followed by 라고 하다 / 말하다/ 물어보다, etc .  In this case,  ‘ 하다 ( 말하다)’  means ‘ to say ’ , while ‘물어보다’  means ‘ to ask’
제가: I , 선생님 : teacher  ,   someone 한테 : to someone,  숙제: homework,   뭐: what ,   물어보다: to ask
제가 선생님한테 “ 숙제가 뭐예요?”  라고  물어봤어요. -> I asked my teacher , “ What is the homework?”
에세이: essay ,  쓰다: to write
선생님이 “ 에세이 써요.” 라고 했어요. ->  The teacher said “ Write an essay.”
93. V- 자마자    “ as soon as - "
Add the verb stem to 자마자
집 : home,  오다 : to come,  보다 : to watch , 매일 : everyday , 일어나다 : to get up , 마시다 : to drink
집에 오자마자 TV를 봤어요. -> As soon as I came home , I watched TV.
매일 일어나자마자 커피를 마셔요. -> Everyday as soon as  I get up , I drink coffee.
94. V / A - (습)ㅂ니다 , N -입니다  "  formal present written ending
When the V/A stem ends in a constant,  add 습니다. When ending in a vowel , add ㅂ니다. For nouns , add it to 입니다.
N의 N : N's N , 노래 : song , 재미있다 : to be fun , interesting,  춤을 추다 : to dance , 잘 : well , 한국 사람 : Korean person
PSY의 노래는 재미있습니다. -> PSY's songs are fun.
PSY는 춤을춥니다. -> PSY dances well.
PSY는 한국 사람입니다. -> PSY is a Korean person.
95.V/A ~(을)ㄹ 텐데 / N 일텐데  " will ~ and (so) / will ~ but  "
This is a combination of - (을)ㄹ터이다 , which expresses an intention to do something  or a supposition about a current or future situation, and (은)ㄴ/는데, which is a background connection.
비 오다  : to rain , 우산 : umbrella,  가지고 가다 : to take
비 올텐데 우산을 가지고 가요. ->It is expected to rain so please take your umbrella.
미국 사람 : American person , 영어 :English , 못 : can't  , 하다 : to speak
Mike는 미국 사람일텐데 영어를 못 해요.
I think Mike is an American but he can't speak English.
96. V/A - (을)ㄹ 지도 몰라요. / N 일지도 몰라요 " might - "
When the V/A stem ends in a consonant, add 을지도 몰라요. When ending in a vowel , add ㄹ지도 몰라요. For nouns , add 일지도 몰라요. The infinitive form is V/A -(을)ㄹ 지도 모르다 / N 일지도 모르다.
시험 : test ,  ~에 떨어지다 : to fail something
시험에 떨어질지도 몰라요. -> I might fail the test.
그 : that , 사람 : person , 의사 : doctor
그 사람은 의사일지도 몰라요.-> That person might be a doctor.
97. V/A-기는 하다  / V/A-기는 V/A  “ to emphasize the V/A  and imply but “
Add the verb / adjective stem to 기는 해요 ( or 기는 )
매운 음식 spicy food , 먹다 : to eat , 근데 : by the way , 좋아하다 : to like
매운 음식을 먹기는 해요. 근데 좋아하지는 않아요. = 매운 음식을 먹기는 먹어요. 근데 좋아하지는 않아요.
-> I eat spicy food but I don’t like it.

98. V/A - 곤 하다
This is used to indicate an action or status done repeatedly or regularly.
주말 : weekend,  가끔 : sometimes,  요리하다 : to cook
주말에 가끔  요리하곤 해요. -> I sometimes cook on weekends.
작년 : last year , 거기 : there , 자주 : often , 가다 : to go
작년에 거기에 자주 가곤 했어요. -> Last year I used to go there often.
99.  V - (으)렴   “gentle commanding ending “
This is used by an older person to command  a much younger person to do something. When the verb stem ends in a consonant,  add 으렴 . When ending in a vowel,  add 렴.
손 : hand(s) , 잘 : well , 씻다 : to wash,
손을 잘 씻으렴 -> Wash your hands well.
숙제 : homework,  열심히 : hard , 하다 : to do
숙제를 열심히 하렴 -> Do your homework hard.
100. V/A - 든지   V/A -든지  / N (이)든지   N (이)든지
This is used to indicate that any of two choices are fine.  When N ends in a consonant,  add 이든지. When ending in a vowel , add 든지.
It is ok to drop ‘지’  to shorten it.
술 : alcohol,  마시다 : to drink , 우유 : milk  , 마음대로 하다 : to do as one like
술을 마시든지 우유를 마시든지 마음대로 해. (Casual ) -> Whether you drink alcohol or milk , do as you like.
밥 : rice , 빵 : bread , 아침 : breakfast,  꼭 : for sure, 먹다: to eat
밥이든 빵이든 아침은 꼭 먹어요. -> Whether it is rice or bread, I eat breakfast for sure
101. V -느라(고)  “ Because , Since “
This is used to indicate a reason for the following clause. Add the verb stem to 느라 or 느라고.  Usually , the following clause is negative.
친구 : friend , 만나다 : to meet , 전화를 받다 : to answer the phone
친구를 만나느라고 전화를 못 받았어. -> Because I was meeting a friend, I couldn't answer the phone.
102. V -게 되다 : “ to get to V , to come to V “
This is used to explain the progress of an action.
부모님 : parents , 일 : work , job , N 때문에 : because of N , 살다 : to live
부모님 일 때문에 서울에서 살게 되었어요. : Because of my parents’  job , I came to iive in Korea.
103.  V /A - (을) ㄹ 거라고 했어요 “ Indirectly declarative quotation for future tense "
When the V/A  stem ends in a consonant, add 을 거라고 다고 했어요. When ending in a vowel or ㄹ ,  add ㄹ 거라고 했어요.The infinitive form is (을 ) ㄹ 거라고 하다. Also , its  contracted form is V/A - (을 )ㄹ 거래요.  Without ‘요’ at thd end , it becomes a casual talk.
그 남자 : that guy , 제가 : I ,  후회하다 : to regret
그 남자는 제가 후회할 거라고 했어요. : That guy said that  I would regret.
친구 : friend  , someone 한테 : to someone,  한국 : Korea , (place ) 에 가다 : to go to ( place)  
제가 친구한테 한국에 갈 거라고 했어요.  : I said to my friend that I would go to Korea.
104.  V - 아 /어 /해 놓다   “ continuous state of an action “
This is used to indicate continuation of the state after an action.  
제가 쿠키를 만들어 놓았어요.  : I made cookies ( ready ) for you.
제가 벽에 그림을 걸어 놓았어요. :  I hung up a painting on the wall.  ( to emphasize that it is still on the wall.)
105. V/A (을) ㄹ 때 됐어요.  : It is time to V / be A
When the V/A  stem ends in a consonant, add 을 때 됐어요.  When ending in a vowel or ㄹ, add ㄹ 때 됐어요. Its infinitive form is -(을 ) ㄹ 때 되다.  It becomes casual talk without 요 at the end.
집 : home , 가다 : to go , 지금 : now , 점심 : lunch,  먹다 : to eat
집에 갈 때가 됐어요.  : It's time to go home.
지금 점심 먹을 때가 됐어요. : Now, it's time to eat lunch.

106. A - 다고 생각하다 / V -는 (ㄴ) 다고 생각하다 / N(이)라고 생각하다  : to think that -
Add 다고 생각해요 to the adjective stem . For present tense verb, if the stem ends in a consonant,  add 는다고 생각해요.  If ending in a vowel, add ㄴ 다고 생각해요. For past tense , add - 았 /었 /했다고 생각해요.  For future tense , if the stem ends in a consonant,  add 을 거라고 생각해요. If ending in a vowel, add ㄹ 거라고 생각해요. For nouns , when the noun ends in a consonant,  add 이라고 생각해요. When ending in a vowel , add 라고 생각해요.
1) For adjectives:  - 다고 생각해요
저는 : I (formal ) , 그 : that , 노래 : song , 좋다 : to be good
저는 그 노래가 좋다고 생각해요. : I think that that song is good.
2) For verbs ( present tense)  : 는 /ㄴ 다고 생각해요
저는 : I ( formal ) , 제 : my (formal) , 친구 : friend ,  좋아하다 : to like ,  
저는 제 친구가 K-Pop 을 좋아한다고 생각해요.  : I think my friend like K-pop .
3) For verbs ( Past tense ) : -았/었 /했다고 생각해요
그 사람 : that person , 한국어 : Korean language,  배우다 : to learn
저는 그 사람이 한국어를 배웠다고 생각해요.  : I think that person learned Korean.
4) For verbs ( future tense ) : -을 /ㄹ 거라고 생각해요
한국: Korea , 곧 : soon ,  가다 : to go
저는 제 친구가  한국에 곧 갈 거라고 생각해요. : I think my friend will go to Korea soon.
5) For nouns : - (이)라고 생각해요
그 사람 : that person , 한국 : Korea , 사람 : person
저는 그 사람이 한국 사람이라고 생각해요.
I think that person is a Korean.
107. A - 기 짝이 없다 “ to be very A “
Add the adjective stem to 기 짝이 없어요 to emphasize. Without ‘요’ at the end , it becomes casual talk.
그 : that,  사람 : person , 단순하다 : to be simple- minded
그 사람은 단순하기 짝이 없어요. : That person is very simple - minded.
아이 : child , 귀엽다 : to be cute
그 아이는 귀엽기 짝이 없어요. : That child is very cute.
108. N 아  / 야.  “ N ! “ (casual )
This is used especially when you casually call someone's name , nickname, etc. When the noun ends in a consonant,  add 아 . When ending in a vowel , add 야
뭐 : what, 하다 : to do , 공부하다 : to study
은하야 ! 뭐 해 ? : Eunha ! What are you doing ?
수민아 ! 공부해 ? : Sumin !  Are you studying?
109.  V - 는다면 / ㄴ다면 , A - 다면 , N -(이)라면 “ assuming a condition “
This is used when you assume a situation which isn't likely to become reality.  When the verb stem ends in a consonant,  add 는다면. When ending in a vowel , add ㄴ 다면.  For adjectives, add the stem to 다면. For nouns ending in a consonant , add 이라면 . When ending in a vowel , add 라면
내일 : .tomorrow,  한국 : Korea,  가다 : to go , 좋다: to be good
내일 한국에 간다면 좋겠어요. : If I go to Korea tomorrow,  it’d be good.
제가 : I , 부자 : a rich man , 기부하다: to donate , 많이 : a lot
제가 부자라면 기부를 많이 할 거예요. : If I were a rich man, I would donate a lot.
110.  N따위 “ derogatory expression”
This is used when you want to degrade or have a derogatory feeling about N
그 : that , those , 말 : words , 말하다 : to say ( 말 : words , 하다 : to do)
어떻게 따위 말 할 수 있어요? :  How can you say those words?
111. A/V- 냐? / N(이)냐?  “ very casually interrogative ending “
Speaking of a noun, when it ends in a consonant, please add 이냐? When ending in a vowel, please add 냐?
한국 : Korea, 사람: person
한국 사람이냐? : Are you a Korean person?
숙제 : homework, 숙제 하다 : to do homework
숙제 했냐? : Did you do your homework?
많이 : very , alot 바쁘다 : to be busy
많이 바쁘냐? : Are you busy a lot ?

112. A- 아/어/해지다  “ to become A “
Conjugate the adjective stem and add 졌어요 to indicate a change of status.  
살을 빼다 : to lose weight , 많이 : a lot , 예쁘다 : to be pretty
미나가 살을 많이 뺐어요.  예뻐졌어요. -> Mina lost a lot of weight. She has become pretty.
아침에 : in the morning , 비가 오다 : to rain , 근데 : but , 지금 : now , 맑다 : to be clear.
아침에 비가 많이 왔어요. 근데 지금 맑아졌어요. -> It rained a lot in the morning.  But now it has become clear.
113.  V- 는 대로 / (은)ㄴ 대로  “ As - “
This is used to indicate that one action is the same as some experience. For the present tense, please add 는대로 to the verb stem. For past tense, add 은대로 when the verb ends in a consonant, add ㄴ 대로 when ending in a vowel.

제가 : I , 지금 : now , 하다 : to do
지금 제가 하는 대로 해 보세요. -> please try it as I do it now
생각하다 : to think , 일: things , 잘 : well, 되다 : to go,  to work
생각한 대로 일이 잘 안 됐어요. -> Things didn't work out well as I thought.

114.  ( 누가 / 뭐 / 어디 / 얼마나 ) V/A - 든 간에  “ whoever / whatever / wherever/ however  S V/A “
Add the verb / adjective stem to 든 간에
하다 : to do
뭐 하든 간에 저는 다 괜찮아요. .  -> Whatever you do , I am okay.
서울에서 어디 가든 간에 다 재미있어요. -> Wherever you go in Seoul , it is fun.

115. V/A - 더라도 “ even though , even if “  
Add the verb / adjective stem to 더라도.
내일 : tomorrow, 비가 오다 : to rain , 등산 가다 : to go hiking
내일 비가 오더라도 등산 갈 거예요. -> Even if it rains tomorrow, I will go hiking.  
오늘 민수는 바쁘더라도 제 생일 파티에 올 거예요. -> Even though Minsu is busy today , he will


Tandis Dickey said...

This is awesome!! I have a question if I learn all the grammar on this website will I be fluent? Btw I love your dance covers💗

11newcon said...

Thank you for your comment.
I think fluency is not just about grammar. Language learners should be adaptable with grammar, words, and phrases that they have learned. I hope my blog will be helpful for you to enjoy learning Korean better.

Bran Yeon said...

Hi! your blog is so awesome! good job! but I looked all it and I dind't find a structure to say "to stop to do/with something" for example: "I stopped smoking last year" or "I'm stopping to drink alchool". Do you know if in korean has a structure to this mean?

11newcon said...

You can refer to Grammar No. 50 to make a verb into a noun
We add the verb stem to 는 거
Also, 그만 두다 means ' to stop '

Therefore , V- 는 거 그만 두다: to stop V-ing

담패 피우다: to smoke a cigarette ( 담배: cigarette)
작년에: last year
작년에 담배 피우는 거 그만 두었어요. ( same as 그만 뒀어요) : I stopped smoking last year.

I hope this is OK and thank you for visiting my blog.