K-Grammar 51-75

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51. V/A -기만 하다  " Only V/A"
This is used to emphasize an action or description itself  only, usually indicating there's nothing else.  Add V/A stem to 기만 해요 for present tense. For past tense, add V/A stem to 기만 했어요. Without 요 at the end, it becomes  casual talk .
그 N: that N  여자: woman 예쁘다: to be pretty.  어제: yesterday  하루 종일: all day long  나는 : I & topic marker (casual) 먹다: to eat
그 여자는 예쁘기만 해요.(formal) -> That woman is only pretty. (indicating that maybe her personality or/and intelligence is not good. )
어제 하루종일 나는 먹기만 했어. (casual) -> Yesterday all day long I only ate. (indicating that I didn't do anything else)
52. V- 고 있다 " to be V-ing " (Progressive Tense)
For present tense, add verb stem to 고 있어요. For past tense, add verb stem to 고 있었어요. Without 요 at the end, it becomes casual talk.  
뭐: what  하다: to do  한국: Korea  노래: song   듣다: to listen  한국어: Korean language  공부하다: to study
A: 뭐 하고 있어? (casual) -> What are (you)  doing?
B: 한국 노래 듣고 있어. (casual) ->( I ) am  listening to a Korean song.
A: 뭐 하고 있었어? (casual) -> What were  (you)  doing?
B: 한국어 공부하고 있었어. (casual) -> (I) was studying  Korean.
53. N 과(와) N  “ N and N, N with N"
When the first noun ends in a consonant, use 과. When ending in a vowel, use 와.
너: you ( casual, used to a close person at the same age or younger).  나: I ( casual)
선생님: Teacher  학생: student  친구: friend 같이: together 놀다: to play
나: you and I   
선생님 학생: teacher and student
나는 친구와 같이 놀았어.(casual) -> I  played with a friend.
54. V-(으)러 오다/ 가다  “ to come / to go in order to V”
When the verb ends in a consonant, add 으러 오다/가다. When ending in a vowel or ㄹ, add 러 오다/ 가다.  We say the purpose first before going /coming. Don’t forget to conjugate the ending depending on the tense and if you leave out ‘요’ at the end, it become casual talk.
한국에 : to Korea  살다: to live  가다: to go   집에: to home  놀다: to play  미국: America 여행하다: to travel  오다: to come
Susan 이 한국에 살러 갔어요. (formal) -> Susan went to Korea to live
Susan이 집에 놀러 왔어.( casual) -> Susan came to (my) home to play.
Susan 이 미국에 여행하러 왔어.( casual) -> Susan came to America to travel.
55. V-나 봐요 " It looks like ~, I guess that ~ "
This is used to infer or guess after seeing a particular situation or hearing about it. Add stem to 나 봐요. Without 요 at the end, it becomes casual talk. Its infinitive form is “V-나 보다”.
밖에: outside. 비 오다 : to rain ( 비: rain 오다 : to come)  많이 : a lot 좋아하다 : to like
밖에 비 오나 봐요. (formal) -> It looks like raining outside.
Mina 가 Sooho를 많이 좋아하나 봐. (casual) -> I guess that Mina likes Sooho a lot
55-1 ) N 인가 봐요 “ It looks like ~ ,  I guess that ~ “
그: that, 남자: man,  한국말: Korean language,  잘 하다: to be good at ,  한국 사람: Korean person
그 남자는  한국말을 잘 해. 한국 사람인가 봐 . (casual) -> That man is good at Korean. He looks like a Korean person.
56. 아/어/해 버리다  " completion of an action or event "
This is used to indicate the completion of an action or event and that nothing remains thereafter. You should conjugate the ending depending on the tense and it becomes  casual talk without 요 at the end.
수업: class, ~ 에 늦다: to be late for ~   결국: finally  남자친구: boyfriend  날 : me 떠나다: to leave   이거 : this  다 : all, everything  먹다: to eat
수업에 늦어 버렸어요. (formal) -> I was late for class.
결국 남자친구가 날  떠나 버렸어.(casual) -> Finally my boyfriend left me.
이거 다 먹어 버릴거야. (casual) -> I will eat up all of this .
57. V-을(ㄹ) 게요. "I / we will - "  
This is used to show the speaker's intention or promise to do something and the speaker has to be 'I' or ' We' only. When the verb stem ends in a consonant, add 을게요. When ending in a vowel or ㄹ, add ㄹ게요. Without 요 at the end, it becomes a casual talk.
숙제: homework  하다 : to do  우리가 : we  책임지다: to take responsibility  저거 : that 입다: wear
숙제 할게요. (formal) -> I will do my homework.
우리가  책임질게. (casual) -> we will take responsibility for this.
저거 입을게요. (formal) -> I will wear that.
58. A - 다  / V- (는)ㄴ다 “ Exclamation ending (!)”
In case of adjectives,  add the stem to 다.  For verbs , when the stem ends in a consonant, add 는다. When ending in a vowel,  add ㄴ다.  This delivers exclamation tone with all kinds of expressive feelings after you notice or hear something.
맛있다: to be tasty  예쁘다: to be pretty  이: this , 빨리 : fast , 달리다 : to run
After you eat something really tasty ->  맛있다 !  ( It’s tasty!)
After you see something really pretty -> 예쁘다! (It’s pretty!)
After you watch something running fast -> 빨리 달린다! ( It runs fast!)
59. V- 다(가) 보면 “ Once S V
This is used to explain if the action or event in the first clause continues, then over time the result in the second clause will occur.  Add verb stem to 다(가)보면.  It doesn’t matter with or without ‘가’ but dropping ‘가’ sounds more practical.
한국어: Korean language  계속:  continuously 공부하다: to study   잘 하게 되다: to get to do well
한국어를 계속 공부하다 보면 잘 하게 될 거예요. (formal) -> Once you study Korean continuously, you will get to do it well.
60. A- (은)ㄴ 가요? /  V-나요?   “ Gently Interrogative ending for Present Tense”
1) When the adjective ends in a consonant, add 은가요? . When ending in a vowel, add ㄴ가요?  Without 요 at the end, it becomes casual talk.
아프다: to be sick, to hurt   옷: clothes  작다: to be small ( of size)
아픈가요? (formal) ->  (Are you) sick?    옷이 작은가? ( casual) -> Are the clothes small?
2) Regardless of ending in a consonant or a vowel, add verb stem to 나요? Without 요 at the end, it becomes a casual talk.
한국어: Korean language   할 수 있다: to be able to do (or to be able to speak a language)
한국어 할 수 있나요? (formal) -> Can you speak Korean ?
61. V/A -잖아요, " As you know S V "  
For the present tense, add V/A stem to 잖아요. This becomes casual talk without 요 at the end.


왜: why 좋아하다: to like 멋있다: to be cool, stylish


A: 2Ne1 왜 좋아해? (casual) -> Why do you like 2Ne1?
B: 멋있잖아.(casual) -> As you know, they are stylish.


62. V/ A ( 은) ㄴ걸요 " mere protest or regret ending"
When the V/ A  ends in a consonant, add 은걸요. When ending in a vowel or ㄹ, add ㄴ 걸요.  Without 요 at the end, it becomes a casual talk
열쇠: key  니: you (casual)  가지다: to have 나한테: to me ( casual) 왜: why  물어보다: to ask  너무: too  늦게 오다: to come late 표: ticket 다 팔리다 : to be sold out
열쇠는 니가 가진걸, 나한테 왜 물어봐? (casual) -> you have the keys, why are you asking me?  
너무 늦게 왔어. 표가 다 팔린걸.(casual) ->(I) came too late. The tickets were all sold out  
62-1). N 인걸요 " mere protest or regret ending"
Without 요 at the end, it becomes a casual talk
왜: why  나를 : me  떠나다: to meet  너: you(casual) 나의: my 처음이자 마지막: the first and last at the same time
왜 나를 떠나? 너는 나의 처음이자 마지막인걸 (casual) -> Why are you leaving me? You are my first and last.
63. V-는 / A,V-은(ㄴ) / N-인 듯 하다.  “ to seem ( sound) like that ~ “
1) For present tense verbs, add 는 듯 해요 Without 요 at the end, it  becomes a casual talk.
비 오다: to rain   
비 오는 듯 해.(casual) -> It seems like that it is raining.
2) For adjectives and past tense verbs , when the stem ends in a consonant, add 은 듯 해요. When ending in a vowel or ㄹ, add ㄴ 듯해요.  Without 요 at the end, it  becomes a casual talk.
이 N: this N  원피스: a dress ( Konglish meaning “ one piece”)  작다: to be small  방금 전에: just a moment ago
이 원피스는  작은 듯 해. (casual) -> This dress seems to be small.
방금전에 비 온 듯 해요. ( formal) -> It seems like it rained just a moment ago.
3) For nouns, add 인 듯 해요. Without 요 at the end, it  becomes a casual talk.
그 N: that N  여자: woman, girl  너무: so  아름답다: to be beautiful  여신: goddess
그 여자는 너무 아름다워서 여신인 듯 해. ( casual) -> That woman is so beautiful that she seems to be a goddess.
4) For future tense verbs, when the stem ends in a consonant, add 을 듯 해요.. When ending in a vowel or ㄹ, add ㄹ 듯해요.  Without 요 at the end, it  becomes a casual talk.
오늘 밤: tonight  비 오다 : to rain
오늘 밤 비 올듯 해.(casual) -> It seems like that it is going to rain tonight.
64. V,A -(은)ㄴ / V-는 / V-(을)ㄹ/ N 만큼
This is used to indicate that the action, state and nouns described in the first clause is similar or equivalent to that in the second clause.
1) For adjectives and past tense verbs, when the stem ends in a consonant, add 은 만큼. When ending in a vowel or ㄹ, add ㄴ 만큼
먹다: to eat  돈: money  내다 : to pay 너: you (casual) 기쁘다: to be happy  나: I (casual) N도: also N
먹은 만큼 돈 내세요. (formal) -> Please pay money as much as you ate. ( please pay an amount equal to how much you ate)
너가 기쁜 만큼 나도 기뻐. (casual) -> I am also as happy as you
2) For present tense verbs, add 는 만큼
나: I (casual)  먹다: to eat  살이 찌다 : to gain weight
나는 먹는 만큼 살이 쪄. (casual)->  I gain weight as much as I eat.
3) For future tense verbs, when ending in a consonant, add을 만큼. When ending in a vowel orㄹ, add ㄹ 만큼
이 N: this N  혀: tongue  바로: right away, immediately 녹다: to melt  달콤하다: to be sweet
이 캔디는 혀끝에서 바로 을 만큼 달콤해.(casual) -> This candy is sweet enough to melt on my tongue right away.
다른: other 여자들: women 안 부럽다: not to be jealous 남자 친구: boyfriend  나에게: to me  잘 하다: to do (treat) well
다른 여자들 안 부러울 만큼 남자친구가 나에게 잘 해.(casual) -> My boyfriend treats me well so I won’t be jealous of other women.
4) For nouns, add 만큼
남동생: younger brother 형: older brother of a man 키가 크다: to be tall
남동생이 형 만큼 키가 커요. (formal) -> The younger brother is as tall as his older brother.
65. N(이)야 말로 " emphasis "
This is used to emphasize the noun, especially when it is the prime example among other possible choices. When ending in a consonant, add 이야말로, when ending in a vowel, add 야말로.
너: you  왜 그래: what’s wrong?  제주도: Jeju Island  한국: Korea  N의 N: N’s N 대표적이다: to be representative 관광지: a tourist spot
너야말로 왜 그래? (casual)-> What’s wrong with you (compared to others)?
제주도야말로 한국의 대표적인 관광지예요. Jeju Island is the most representative tourist spot of Korea.
66. V-을(ㄹ) 래요 " want to V, would like to V"
When ending in a consonant, add 을래요. When ending in a vowel or ㄹ, add  ㄹ래요. Without 요 at the end, it becomes a casual talk.
내일: tomorrow  만나다: to meet up  피곤하다: to be tired  지금:now 자다: to sleep
내일 만날래요?  (formal)-> Do you want to meet up tomorrow?
피곤해. 지금 잘래. ( casual)-> I am tired. I want to sleep now
67. V/A -아/어/해봤자 " Even if"
This is used to indicate that what is stated in the first clause is not that great or noteworthy
한국어: Korean language 어렵다: to be difficult  일본어: Japanese language  N보다: than N
한국어가 어려워봤자 일본어보다 어렵지 않을 거예요.
Even if Korean is difficult, it wouldn't be difficult than Japanese.
68. V/A -(으)면 V/A -(을) ㄹ수록  ~  " The more (-er) ~"
When the stem ends in a consonant, add 으면 을수록. When ending in a vowel or ㄹ, add 면 ㄹ수록. But it is also okay to drop the first part 'V/A -(으)면 'and still the meaning stays the same
연습하다: to practice  좋아지다: to get better
연습하면 연습할수록 좋아질 거예요.(formal) -> The more you practice,  the better you get
많이 :a lot 먹다: to eat  졸리다: to be sleepy
먹을수록 졸려. (Casual) -> The more I eat ,  The more sleepy I am
69. V-아/어/해라 ( causal, imperative ending)
Conjugate the verb stem ( Please refer to K-Grammar basics for its rules) and add ‘라’. For negative one, add -지 마라 to the verb stem.
그거: it, (that thing)   하다: to do  가다: to go
그거 해라! : Do it !  <ㅡ> 그거 하지 마라. : Don’t do it !
가라 : Go! <ㅡ>  가지 마라 : Don’t go!
70. V-(은)ㄴ 채 (  same as V-(은)ㄴ 채로)  
This is used to indicate that the action in the following clause is performed under the circumstances described in the preceding clause.  When the verb stem ends in a consonant, add 은 채. When ending in a vowel or ㄹ, add ㄴ 채.
내 N : my N  여자친구: girlfriend  이별: break- up  모르다: not to know 웃고 있다: to be smiling
내 여자친구는 이별을 모른 채 웃고 있었어요. (formal)  -> My girlfriend was smiling without knowing our break-up
그 남자: that guy 창문: window  닫다: to close  담배 : cigarette  피다: to smoke
그 남자는 창문 닫은 채 담배를 피웠어요. (formal)-> That guy smoked a cigarette  with the window closed
71.  A/V-게 (same as A/V- 도록)
This is used to indicate that the action in the following clause is necessary to realize the preceding action or state in the first clause.
니 : your (casual)  얼굴: face  그리다: to draw  웃어 주다:to smile at
니 얼굴 그릴 수 있게 웃어 줘.  = 니 얼굴 그릴 수 있도록 웃어 줘. (casual)  ->  Smile at me so I can draw your face.
잘 : well  알아듣다: to listen and understand  천천히: slow  말하다: to speak
알아들을 수 있게 천천히 말해주세요.= 잘 알아들을 수 있도록 천천히 말해주세요.(formal)  ->  Please speak slowly  so I can understand you well.
( Refer to G1& 28 for ‘can’ &’ please’ )
72. V -(은)ㄴ 적이 있어요/ 없어요. “ Have done / Haven’t done “  (About experience in the past)  
This is used to express if you have a  particular experience or not in the past.  When the verb stem ends in a consonant, add 은 적이 있어요./ 없어요. When ending in a vowel or ㄹ, add ㄴ 적이 있어요/ 없어요. Without 요 at the end, it becomes a casual talk and its infinitive form is V-(은)ㄴ 적이 있다/ 없다.
그 N: that N  영화: movie   보다: to watch  한국 음식: Korean food  먹다: to eat
그 영화를 본 적이 없어요. (formal) -> I haven’t watched that movie.
한국 음식 먹은 적이 있어. ( casual) -> I have eaten Korean food.
72-1 ) V- 아/어/해 본 적이 있어요/ 없어요. “ Have done / Haven’t done “  (About experience in the past)  
This is quite the same as 72)
한국 : Korea ,  가다 : to go to
한국에 가 본 적이 있어요. (formal) -> I have been to Korea?
한국사람을 만나 본 적이 없어요. (formal ) -> I have not met a Korean person.
73. 아무리 V/A-아/어/해도  “ No matter how ~
Conjugate the Verb/Adjective stem. (For conjugation rules, refer to K-Grammar Basics)
내가 : I (casual) 말하다: to speak, to tell   너: you (casual)  듣다: to listen
내가 아무리 말해도 너는 듣지 않아. No matter how much I tell you , you don’t listen.
열심히: hard  , 운동하다: to exercise , 살 빠지다: to lose weight
아무리 열심히 운동해도 살 안 빠져요. (formal) -> No matter how hard I exercise, I don’t lose weight.
74. V- 아/ 어/해도 돼요  " Even if - , it is ok . / It is ok to - "
Conjugate the verb stem and add 도 돼요.  Its infinitive form is V- 아/어/해도 되다. Instead of 돼요, you can add 괜찮아요 ( all right) or 좋아요( good) and the like. Without요 at the end, it becomes a casual talk.
이거: this thing  먹다 : to eat  여기:here  앉다: to sit
이거 먹어도 돼요? (formal) ->  Is it ok to eat this ?
여기 앉아도 돼. (casual) -> It is ok to sit here.
75. V-는데도 / A-은(ㄴ)데도
This is a combination of -(은)ㄴ/는데 (describing the situation under discussion) and -아/어도 ( despite, though). For verbs, add the stem to 는데도. For adjectives, when ending in a consonant, add 은데도. When ending in a vowel, add ㄴ 데도.
사랑: love 주다: to give 너: you (casual) 받다: to accept
사랑을 주는데도 너는 받지 않아. (casual) -> Though I am giving you love, you don't accept it.
배부르다: to be full (of stomach) 또 :again 먹다: to eat
배부른데도 또 먹어?  (casual) -> You are full, but eating again?

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