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31. V/A- 건/던 V/A -건/던 , N-(이)건 N-(이)건 " whether - or - "
Add V/A stem to 건 or 던. In case you add nouns, you need to add ( 이) 건/ 던. When the noun ends in a consonant, add 이건 or 이던, when ending in a vowel , add 건 or 던
지원자: applicant 나이: age 많다 : to be a lot 적다 : to be little 상관없다: not to matter 서울 N타워 : Seoul N tower 명동: Myoungdong (a popular shopping area) 아무데나: anywhere 괜찮다: to be fine
지원자가 나이가 많건 적건 / 나이가 많던 적던 상관없어요. (formal) -> Whether the applicants are old or young, it doesn't matter서울 N타워건 명동이건 / 서울 N타워던 명동이던 아무데나 괜찮아요.(formal) -> Whether it is Seoul N tower or Myoungdong, anywhere is fine ( to go).
32. V -(는) ㄴ 다고 하다 / A -다고 하다 / N(이) 라고 하다 " Indirectly declarative quotation for present tense "
1) When the verb stem ends in a consonant, add 는다고 했어요. When ending in a vowel or ㄹ, add ㄴ 다고 했어요. The contracted form is - 는대요 / -ㄴ대요. Without ‘요’ at the end, it becomes casual talk.
오다 : to come 지금: now
Mike 가 지금 온다고 했어요. (formal) = Mike 가 지금 온대요 ( contracted formal)
-> Mike said he is coming now.
2) For adjectives, add stem to 다고 했어요. The contracted form is -대요. Without ‘요’ at the end, it becomes casual talk.
불고기: Bulgogi ( Korean grilled marinated beef) 맛있다 : to be tasty 음식: food
Mike가 불고기가 맛있다고 했어. (casual) = Mike가 불고기가 맛있대. (contracted casual)
-> Mike said Bulgogi is tasty.
3) For nouns, when ending in a consonant , add 이라고 했어요. When ending in a vowel, add 라고 했어요. The contracted form is -이래요 / -래요. Without ‘요’ at the end, it becomes casual talk.
Mike 가 불고기가 맛있는 음식이라고 했어. (casual) = Mike 가 불고기가 맛있는 음식이래. (contracted casual) ->Mike said Bulgogi is a tasty food.
33. V-자고 하다 " Indirectly suggestive quotation"
Add verb stem to 자고 했어요.
사귀다 : to become a couple 주말: weekend -에 : on ( time marker) 만나다: to meet
Andy 가 사귀자고 했어.(casual) -> Andy said we should become a couple.
Andy 가 주말에 만나자고 했어요. (formal)-> Andy said we should meet on the weekend.
33-1. V-자 “ Let’s V” (casually suggestive ending)
Add verb stem to 자 to suggest to do something together with the speaker. It’s a casual talk.
내일: tomorrow 놀다: to play 가다: go
내일 놀자. ( casual) -> Let’s play tomorrow
가자 (casual) -> Let’s go
가자 (casual) -> Let’s go
34. V-던 N " N that used to V "
Add verb stem or past conjugated form to 던. It is always used in front of nouns.
이거 : this thing 어리다 : to be young 읽다 : to read 책: book 자주: often 듣다: to listen 노래: song
이거 어릴때 읽던 책( or 읽었던 책) 이에요. (formal) -> This is a book that I used to read when I was young.
이거 자주 듣던 노래 ( or 들었던 노래) 야. (casual) -> This is a song I used to listen often.
34-1. This is also used to recollect an action started in the past but still not ended.
제가: I (formal) 보다: to see ( 봤어요: saw)
제가 읽던 책 봤어요? Did you see the book I was reading?
35. V/A-냐고 하다 , N(이)냐고 하다 " Indirectly interrogative quotation"
Add V/A stem to 냐고 했어요. When the noun ends in a consonant, 이냐고 했어요, when ending in a vowel, add 냐고 했어요.
엄마: mom 몇시에: what time 집: home ~에: to ~ 오다: to come 사람들: people 미국사람: American person 물어보다: to ask
엄마가 몇시에 집에 오냐고 했어. (casual) -> Mom asked me what time I would come home.
사람들이 미국사람이냐고 물어봤어요.(formal) -> People asked me If I was an American person.
35-1) V/A-냬요 , N(이)냬요 " contracted form of Indirectly interrogative quotation"
Add V/A stem to 냬요. When the noun ends in a consonant, 이냬요. when ending in a vowel, add 냬요. Without 요 at the end , it becomes casual talk.
엄마가 몇시에 집에 오냬. (casual) -> Mom asked me what time I would come home.
사람들이 미국사람이냬요. (formal) -> People asked me if I was an American person.
36. N(이)라도 " at least N” or “ N or something”
This is used to indicate that N is not the best option but that will suffice. When the noun ends in a consonant, add 이라도 .When ending in a vowel, add 라도.
커피: coffee 없다 : not to have - (으) 면 : If - (check G22) 물: water 주세요 : please give
커피 없으면 물이라도 주세요. (formal)-> If you don't have coffee, please give me water at least. (/ water or something)
37.V-(을)ㄹ까 해요. " thinking of (about)- , planning to - " ( Vague intention or plan)
When the verb stem ends in a consonant, add 을까해요. When ending in a vowel or ㄹ, add ㄹ까해요. Its infinitive form is -(을)ㄹ까 하다
다음 달에 : next month 한국: Korea ~에 여행가다: to go on a trip to ~
다음달에 한국에 여행갈까 해요. (formal) -> I am thinking of going on a trip to Korea next month
38. V-는데/ A-(은)ㄴ데 / N-(인) ㄴ데 " but , and"
This is a connective ending . For verbs, add the stem to 는데. For adjectives, add the stem to 은데 when ending in a consonant, add the stem to ㄴ데 when ending in a vowel. For nouns, add the stem to 인데 when ending in a consonant, add the stem to ㄴ데 when ending a vowel.
저는 : (I & topic marker) 노래하다: to sing 못: can't 춤 추다 : to dance 잘: well 배우: actor(actress) 박신혜 (Park Sinhye)
저는 노래 못 하는데 춤 잘 춰요.(formal) -> I can't sing but I dance well.
박신혜는 배운데 춤 잘 춰.(casual) -> Park Sinhye is an actress but dances well.
2) " background situation or reason -> and"
괜찮다: to be ok 가보다 : to try to go
Trick art museum 괜찮은데 가봐.(casual) -> Trick art museum is ok, try it.
3) “ Used as an interrogative ending to slightly oppose or complain to the listener”
내가: I (casual) 뭘: what 잘못 하다: to do something wrong
내가 뭘 잘못했는데? (casual) -> what did I do wrong?
39. V/A -(으) 니까 (same as V/A- (으)니) "since, because , so"
When the stem ends in a consonant, add 으니까 or 으니 . When ending in a vowel or ㄹ, add니까 or 니
미안해요: I am sorry (formal) 이번 주: this week 바쁘다: to be busy 다음 주: next week
미안해. 이번주는 바쁘니까 다음주에 만나자. (casual) -> Sorry. This week I am busy , so next week let's meet .
-> Sorry. Since (Because) this week I am busy, next week let's meet .
오늘: today 피곤하다: to be tired 내일 : tomorrow 하다: to do
오늘 피곤하니 내일 하자. (casual) -> Today, I am tired, so let’s do it tomorrow
39-1. N -(이) 니까 "since, because , so"
When the noun ends in a consonant, add 이니까 or 이니 . When ending in a vowel, add니까 or 니
너: you (casual) 내: my (casual) 친구: friend 비밀: secret 알려주다: to inform , to tell
너는 내 친구니까 비밀을 알려줄게 (casual) -> Since you are my friend, I will tell you a secret
40. N (으)로 " by means of , with , to , toward"
When the noun ends in consonant, add 으로. When ending in vowel orㄹ, add 로.
지하철: subway 가다: to go V -자: let's V 오른쪽: right side 볼펜: ball pen 쓰다: to write V-(으)세요: formal command ending
지하철로 가자: Let's go by subway.
오른쪽으로 가자 : Let's go to the right side.
볼펜으로 쓰세요: Write with a ball pen.
40-1 . N (으)로 "as N "
저는 : I ( formal) , 좋은 친구 : a good friend , 대하다 : to treat ,
저는 마이크를 좋은 친구로 대했어요. : I treated Mike as a good friend.
41. N (이)야 " am/ are/ is N " (casual)
It is used only casually right after nouns. When the noun ends in a consonant, add 이야. When ending in a vowel, add 야. Its infinitive form is (이)다 "to be N"
저N : that N 아이: child 누구: who 내: my 남동생: younger brother 너: your, your
A: 저 아이는 누구야? : Who is that child? B: 내 남동생이야 : He is my younger brother
41-1) The opposite form is N(이/가) 아니야 “ am/ are/ is not N “ (casual)
When the noun end in a consonant, add N이 아니야. When ending in a vowel, add N가 아니야. Its infinitive form is N(이) 아니다 "to not be N"
A: 저 아이는 너 남동생이야? : Is that child your younger brother?
B: 내 남동생이 아니야 : He is not my younger brother
42. A/V -(은) ㄴ/ 는/ (을) ㄹ것 같아요. " I think , It looks ( sounds) like , It appears that "
Without 요 at the end, it becomes a casual talk and its infinitive form is ~것 같다.
1) For adjectives and past tense verbs
When the stem ends in a consonant, add 은 것 같아요. When ending in a vowel or ㄹ, add ㄴ것 같아요.
니: you, your 생각 : idea, thought 좋다 : to be good 시험 보다 : to take a test ( 시험: test, 보다: to see) 잘 : well
니 생각 좋은 것 같아.(casual) -> I think your idea is good
시험 잘 본 것 같아요. (formal) -> I think took the test well.
2) For present tense verbs
Add stem to 는 것 같아요.
좋아하다 : to like
Jeremy가 Sarah를 좋아하는 것 같아요. (formal) -> It looks like Jeremy likes Sarah
3) For future tense verbs
When the stem ends in a consonant, add 을것 같아요. When ending in a vowel or ㄹ, add ㄹ것 같아요.
너무: so 배고프다 : to be hungry 죽다 : to die 그 N: that N 사람: person ~ 없이: without~ 못: can't 살다: to live 재미있다: to be fun, interesting 그거: that thing (that)
너무 배고파서 죽을 것 같아. (casual) -> I am so hungry that I think I'm going to die.
그 사람 없이 못 살 것 같아. (casual) -> I think I won't be able to live without that person.
그거 재미있을 것 같아요. (formal) -> That sounds like fun.
42-1. N 같아요. " I think , S look like
그: that , 남자 : guy , 화장을 하다 : to put on make-up , 여자 : woman
그 남자가 화장을 하니까 여자 같아요. -> Since they guy put on make-up ,he looks like a woman.
43. V- (을) ㄹ N (Future tense of modification)
When the verb stem ends in a consonant, add 을 in front of the noun. When ending in a vowel orㄹ, add ㄹ in front of the noun.
오늘: today 하다: to do 일: things, work 많이 : much / many( adverb) 있다: to have , to exist 이거: this thing (this) 내일: tomorrow 먹다: to eat 거: thing, stuff 나를: me 도와주다: to help 사람: person N뿐: only N
오늘 할 일 많이 있어요.(formal) -> (I) have many things to do.
이거 내일 먹을 거야. (casual) -> This is the the thing to eat tomorrow. ( This is what I am going to eat tomorrow)
나를 도와줄 사람은 Kevin뿐이야.(casual)-> The person to help me is only Kevin.
44. N 에게(한테) " to N "
The nouns should be people or other living creatures . Otherwise, 에 is added to the nouns.
선생님: teacher 내게( a shortened form of 나에게) 나: I , me 한국어: Korean language 가르쳐주다: to teach 선물: gift 드리다: to give(honorific) 아침에 : in the morning 꽃: flower 물: water 주다: to give
Anna 선생님이 내게 한국어를 가르쳐줬어. (casual) -> Anna teacher taught Korean to me.
선생님에게 선물 드릴 거예요. (formal) -> (I) will give a gift to (my) teacher.
아침에 꽃에 물을 줬어. (casual) -> (I) gave water to the flower->(I) watered the flower in the morning.
45. V/A-지요(?) “ Confirming or looking for the listener’s agreement “
Add the stem to 지요. If the speaker intends to ask the listener, raise up the tone at the end. Also, 지요 is usually shortened into 죠. Without 요 at the end, it becomes a casual talk.
당연히: of course 그거: that thing (that) 모르다: not to know (몰랐어요: didn't know) 맛있다: to be tasty 수업: class 재미있다: to be fun, interesting
당연히 그거 몰랐지.( casual) : Of course, I didn't know that.
그거 맛있지요? (formal) : That is tasty, right? / Isn't that tasty?
그 수업 재미있죠? (formal) That class is fun, right? / Isn't that class fun?
46. V-다(가) ~ " As ~ "
This is used to indicate an interruption of an action. Add verb stem to 다가. 다가 can be shortened to -다
걷다: to walk 넘어지다: to fall TV 보다: to watch TV 잠들다: to fall asleep
걷다가 넘어졌어요.(formal) -> As (I) walked, (I) fell.
TV 보다 잠들었어.(casual) -> As (I) watched TV, (I) fell asleep.
47. V/A- (을)ㄹ 까요?
This is used to express the speaker’s supposition of an action or state that has yet to happen and corresponds to “ Will (S) V ?” When the V/A stem ends in a consonant, add 을까요?. When ending in a vowel or ㄹ, add ㄹ 까요? Without 요 at the end, it becomes casual talk.
파티: party N 에 : to N 오다: to come 이번: this (time) 학기: semester 성적: grades 괜찮다: to be OK 어제: yesterday 믿다 : to believe 꿈을 꾸다 : to dream (꿈: dream, noun) 것: thing
Mina 가 파티에 올까? ( casual) -> Will Mina come to the party?
이번 학기 성적 괜찮을까요? (formal) -> Will this semester’s grades be OK?
47-1) Another usage for this is to ask the listener for an opinion.
우리: we 언제: when 만나다: to meet up 왜: why 오다: to come
우리 언제 만날까? ( casual) -> When should we meet up?
왜 Mina 는 안 왔을까요? (formal) -> Why didn’t Mina come?
이게 : this , 제 : my , 운명 : destiny
이게 제 운명일까요? -> Is this my destiny?
48. V- 길 바라다 (원하다) “to hope (to want ) to V / to hope ( to want) S V”
Add verb stem to 길 바래요 / 원해요. Actually 길 is a shortened form of 기를, which is a combination of 기 & 를 (object marker). Please refer to K-Grammar # 5 to understand ‘-기’ . By adding 기 to V/A, V/A turns into a noun. Without 요 at the end, it becomes casual talk.
나는: I & topic marker 니가: you & subject marker 진실: the truth 말해주다: to tell
나는 니가 진실을 말해주길 바래.(casual) -> I hope you tell me the truth.
하루 종일: all day long 너와: with you 같이: together 있다: to be 원하다: to want
하루 종일 같이 너와 있길 원해. (casual) -> I want to be with you together all day long.
49. V-고 말다 “ to end up in V-ing “
This is used for an unplanned event or action that finishes in a usually undesirable way. Add verb stem to 고 말았어요 to indicate “ ended up in V-ing “ and to 고 말거예요 to indicate “ will end up in V-ing”. Without 요 at the end, it become causal talk ( 말았어요 -> 말았어,말거예요-> 말거야)
너무: very 아프다: to be sick l 입원하다: to be hospitalized in 지금: now 수술 받다: to have surgery ( 수술: surgery 받다: to receive) 죽다: to die
Angella 는 너무 아파서 입원하고 말았어요.(formal) -> Because Angella was sick she ended up in being hospitalized. ( ~ 서 meaning ‘because’ , refer to G 29)
Angella 가 지금 수술 받지 않으면 죽고 말거야. (casual) -> If Angella doesn’t get a surgery now, she will end up in dying. (~면 meaning ‘If’, refer to G22 )
50. V-는 게/ 걸/ 거/ 것 “ V-ing” (Gerund)
For an action or event related to the present tense, add verb stem to 는 게/ 걸/ 거/ 것 in order to change the verb into a noun. You can use - 게 only in the subject position and 걸 only in the object position. But you can use -거( 것) in the both object and subject positions. For our pronunciation convenience, we usually say 거 instead of clearly ‘것’ . Actually 게/걸/거/것 means a “thing” in English. For example 이게, 이걸, 이거, 이것 mean this thing ( this: 이)
지금 : now 숨 쉬다: to breath 힘들다: to be hard 저는 : I & topic marker (formal) 춤 추다: to dance 좋아하다: to like
지금 숨 쉬는 게 힘들어요. = 지금 숨 쉬는 거 힘들어요= 지금 숨 쉬는 것 힘들어요. (formal)-> Now, breathing is hard (Now, It is hard to breathe.)
저는 춤 추는 걸 좋아해요. = 저는 춤 추는 거 좋아해요.= 저는 춤 추는 것 좋아해요.( formal) -> I like dancing ( I like to dance)
* The examples above are formal talk because of ‘요’ at the end.
50-1) A / V(past tense) - (은) ㄴ게/ 걸/ 거 / 것
For an adjective or action that happened in the past , add 은 게/ 걸/ 거 / 것 when the stem ends in a consonant. When ending in a vowel or ㄹ, add the stem to ㄴ 게/ 걸/ 거/ 것
너를 : you & object marker ~ 보내다: to let go of ~ 후회되다: to be regrettable 저녁: dinner 많이: a lot 먹다: to eat 후회하다: to regret
너를 보낸 게 후회돼= 너를 보낸 거 후회돼. = 너를 보낸 것 후회돼.( casual) -> Letting you go is regrettable.
저녁 많이 먹은 걸 후회해.= 저녁 많이 먹은 거 후회해.= 저녁 많이 먹은 것 후회해.( casual) -> I regret eating a lot of dinner.
50-2) N 인 게/ 걸/ 거 /것 : being N
For nouns, add 은 게/ 걸/ 거 / 것 to the stem
그: that , 사람: person, 한국 사람: Korean person , 모르다: to not know그 사람이 의사인 걸 몰랐어요. = 그 사람이 의사인 거 몰랐어요. = 그 사람이 의사인 것 몰랐어요. -> I didn’t know that he was a doctor.
50-3) A / V stem - (을)ㄹ 게/ 걸/ 거 /것 : ( Future tense)
For an adjective or action that will happen in the future, add 을 게/ 걸/ 거 / 것 when the stem ends in a consonant. When ending in a vowel or ㄹ, add the stem to ㄹ 게/ 걸/ 거/ 것.
N 처럼 : like N , 머리 : head, 깨지다 : to break , 아프다 : to be sick , hurt
머리가 깨질 것 처럼 아파요. : My head hurts like it is going to explode
51. V/A -기만 하다 " Only V/A"
This is used to emphasize an action or description itself only, usually indicating there's nothing else. Add V/A stem to 기만 해요 for present tense. For past tense, add V/A stem to 기만 했어요. Without 요 at the end, it becomes casual talk .
그 N: that N 여자: woman 예쁘다: to be pretty. 어제: yesterday 하루 종일: all day long 나는 : I & topic marker (casual) 먹다: to eat
그 여자는 예쁘기만 해요.(formal) -> That woman is only pretty. (indicating that maybe her personality or/and intelligence is not good. )
어제 하루종일 나는 먹기만 했어. (casual) -> Yesterday all day long I only ate. (indicating that I didn't do anything else)
52. V- 고 있다 " to be V-ing " (Progressive Tense)
For present tense, add verb stem to 고 있어요. For past tense, add verb stem to 고 있었어요. Without 요 at the end, it becomes casual talk.
뭐: what 하다: to do 한국: Korea 노래: song 듣다: to listen 한국어: Korean language 공부하다: to study
A: 뭐 하고 있어? (casual) -> What are (you) doing?
B: 한국 노래 듣고 있어. (casual) ->( I ) am listening to a Korean song.
A: 뭐 하고 있었어? (casual) -> What were (you) doing?
B: 한국어 공부하고 있었어. (casual) -> (I) was studying Korean.
53. N 과(와) N “ N and N, N with N"
When the first noun ends in a consonant, use 과. When ending in a vowel, use 와.
너: you ( casual, used to a close person at the same age or younger). 나: I ( casual)
선생님: Teacher 학생: student 친구: friend 같이: together 놀다: to play
너와 나: you and I
선생님과 학생: teacher and student
나는 친구와 같이 놀았어.(casual) -> I played with a friend.
54. V-(으)러 오다/ 가다 “ to come / to go in order to V”
When the verb ends in a consonant, add 으러 오다/가다. When ending in a vowel or ㄹ, add 러 오다/ 가다. We say the purpose first before going /coming. Don’t forget to conjugate the ending depending on the tense and if you leave out ‘요’ at the end, it become casual talk.
한국에 : to Korea 살다: to live 가다: to go 집에: to home 놀다: to play 미국: America 여행하다: to travel 오다: to come
Susan 이 한국에 살러 갔어요. (formal) -> Susan went to Korea to live
Susan이 집에 놀러 왔어.( casual) -> Susan came to (my) home to play.
Susan 이 미국에 여행하러 왔어.( casual) -> Susan came to America to travel.
55. V-나 봐요 " It looks like ~, I guess that ~ "
This is used to infer or guess after seeing a particular situation or hearing about it. Add stem to 나 봐요. Without 요 at the end, it becomes casual talk. Its infinitive form is “V-나 보다”.
밖에: outside. 비 오다 : to rain ( 비: rain 오다 : to come) 많이 : a lot 좋아하다 : to like
밖에 비 오나 봐요. (formal) -> It looks like raining outside.
Mina 가 Sooho를 많이 좋아하나 봐. (casual) -> I guess that Mina likes Sooho a lot
55-1 ) N 인가 봐요 “ It looks like ~ , I guess that ~ “
그: that, 남자: man, 한국말: Korean language, 잘 하다: to be good at , 한국 사람: Korean person
그 남자는 한국말을 잘 해. 한국 사람인가 봐 . (casual) -> That man is good at Korean. He looks like a Korean person.
56. 아/어/해 버리다 " completion of an action or event "
This is used to indicate the completion of an action or event and that nothing remains thereafter. You should conjugate the ending depending on the tense and it becomes casual talk without 요 at the end.
수업: class, ~ 에 늦다: to be late for ~ 결국: finally 남자친구: boyfriend 날 : me 떠나다: to leave 이거 : this 다 : all, everything 먹다: to eat
수업에 늦어 버렸어요. (formal) -> I was late for class.
결국 남자친구가 날 떠나 버렸어.(casual) -> Finally my boyfriend left me.
이거 다 먹어 버릴거야. (casual) -> I will eat up all of this .
57. V-을(ㄹ) 게요. "I / we will - "
This is used to show the speaker's intention or promise to do something and the speaker has to be 'I' or ' We' only. When the verb stem ends in a consonant, add 을게요. When ending in a vowel or ㄹ, add ㄹ게요. Without 요 at the end, it becomes a casual talk.
숙제: homework 하다 : to do 우리가 : we 책임지다: to take responsibility 저거 : that 입다: wear
숙제 할게요. (formal) -> I will do my homework.
우리가 책임질게. (casual) -> we will take responsibility for this.
저거 입을게요. (formal) -> I will wear that.
57-1) Conjugated V + 드릴게요 "I / we will V for you “ ( very honorific)
커피 : coffee, 한 잔 : a cup , 만들다 : to make
커피를 한 잔 만들어 드릴게요. -> I will make a cup of coffee for you.
58. A - 다 / V- (는)ㄴ다 “ Exclamation ending (!)”
In case of adjectives, add the stem to 다. For verbs , when the stem ends in a consonant, add 는다. When ending in a vowel, add ㄴ다. This delivers exclamation tone with all kinds of expressive feelings after you notice or hear something.
맛있다: to be tasty 예쁘다: to be pretty 이: this , 빨리 : fast , 달리다 : to run
After you eat something really tasty -> 맛있다 ! ( It’s tasty!)
After you see something really pretty -> 예쁘다! (It’s pretty!)
After you watch something running fast -> 빨리 달린다! ( It runs fast!)
59. V- 다(가) 보면 “ Once S V
This is used to explain if the action or event in the first clause continues, then over time the result in the second clause will occur. Add verb stem to 다(가)보면. It doesn’t matter with or without ‘가’ but dropping ‘가’ sounds more practical.
한국어: Korean language 계속: continuously 공부하다: to study 잘 하게 되다: to get to do well
한국어를 계속 공부하다 보면 잘 하게 될 거예요. (formal) -> Once you study Korean continuously, you will get to do it well.
60. A- (은)ㄴ 가요? / V-나요? “ Gently Interrogative ending for Present Tense”
1) When the adjective ends in a consonant, add 은가요? . When ending in a vowel, add ㄴ가요? Without 요 at the end, it becomes casual talk.
아프다: to be sick, to hurt 옷: clothes 작다: to be small ( of size)
아픈가요? (formal) -> (Are you) sick? 옷이 작은가? ( casual) -> Are the clothes small?
2) Regardless of ending in a consonant or a vowel, add verb stem to 나요? Without 요 at the end, it becomes a casual talk.
한국어: Korean language 할 수 있다: to be able to do (or to be able to speak a language)
한국어 할 수 있나요? (formal) -> Can you speak Korean ?