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26. V -지 말라고 하다 " to tell somebody not to V
This is a negative form of indirectly imperative quotation. Add verb stem to 지 말라고 했어요.
선생님: teacher 늦게 : late 오다 : to come
선생님이 늦게 오지 말라고 했어요. (formal)
-> The teacher told me not to come late.
26-1) Its positive form is V - (으) 라고 하다 " to tell somebody to V"
When the verb stem ends in a consonant, add 으라고 했어요 . When ending in a vowel or ㄹ, add 라고 했어요.
친구: friend 빨리: quickly 오다: to come
엄마: mom 이거 : this thing 먹다 : to eat
친구가 빨리 오라고 했어. (casual)
-> (My) friend told me to come quickly.
엄마가 이거 먹으라고 했어 (casual)
-> (My) mom told me to eat this.
27. V/A-(으)면 좋겠어요 / N-(이)면 좋겠어요 " I hope ~ "
When the V/A stem ends in a consonant, add 으면 좋겠어요.When ending in a vowel or ㄹ, add 면 좋겠어요. Its infinitive form is -(으) 면 좋겠다.
내일: tomorrow 비 오다 : to rain ( 비- rain, 오다: to come) (N) 안~: not ~
내일 비 안오면 좋겠어요. (formal)
-> I hope it is not raining tomorrow.
For nouns, when the noun ends in a consonant, add 이면 좋겠어요. When ending in a vowel, add 면 좋겠어요.
거짓말: a lie N (이)다: to be N
거짓말이면 좋겠어. (casual)
-> I hope that was a lie.
27-1) Past tense V/A 으면 해요 / N 이었으면 (였으면) 해요 “ I hope ~ “
내일 비 안 왔으면 해요.
-> I hope it is not raining tomorrow
For nouns, when the noun ends in a consonant, add 이었으면 해요. When ending in a vowel, add 였으면 해요.
거짓말이었으면 해요.-> I hope that was a lie
28. V- 아/어/해 주세요 " please ~ for me"
Conjugate the verb stem and add 주세요 ( formal), 줘요(polite) or 줘(casual). Its infinitive form is V- 아/어/해 주다. Plesse refer to 'K - grammar basics' for conjugation rules.
태우다 : to give a ride 돕다 : to help 전화: phone 번호: number 알려주다 : to inform
태워 줘 (casual) -> Give me a ride.
태워 줘요.( polite) -> Give me a ride, please.
도와 주세요 ( formal) -> Help me, please
전화번호 알려 줘 ( casual) -> Let me know (your) phone number.
29.V/A - 아서/어서/해서 / N - (이)라서 " and " / “ so, because” ,
Conjugate the verb/ adjective stem and add 서. For nouns , when it ends in a consonant, add 이라서 . When ending in a vowel , add 라서. This is a connective ending and has two meanings depending on the context.
1) Sequence ("and") : The first event is placed in the first clause and the second one in the second clause. Two events are closely related.
저기: (over) there 앉다 : to sit 얘기하다 : to talk ~ 자 : let's (casual) 다음 주에: next week 만나다: to meet 놀다 : to play, to hang (out) with
저기 앉아서 얘기하자. (casual) ->Let's sit and talk over there.
다음주에 만나서 놀자.(casual) -> Let's meet and play next week.
2) reason & result : the reason is placed in the first clause and the result in the second clause.
늦다: to be late 죄송합니다: I'm sorry, I apologize (formal) 좋아하다: to like 한국: Korea ~ 에 관심이 있다 : to be interested in~ 많이: a lot
늦어서 죄송합니다.( formal) -> I'm sorry for being late
Kpop을 좋아해서 한국에 관심이 많이 있어. (casual) -> (I) like Kpop, so (I'm) much interested in Korea. = Because (I) like Kpop, (I’m) much interested in Korea.
한국 사람 : Korean person , 한국말 : Korean language , 잘 : well
미나는 한국 사람이라서 한국말을 잘 해요. -> Mina is a Korean person, so she is good at Korean language.
30. V/A -지만 " but, however"
Add stem to 지만. This is a connective ending.
한국어: Korean language 어렵다: to be difficult 배우다: to learn ~ 고 싶다 : to want to
한국어는 어렵지만 배우고 싶어.(casual)
-> Korean is difficult but I want to learn.
31. V/A- 건 V/A -건 , N-(이)건 N-(이)건 " whether - or - "
Add V/A stem to 건. In case you add nouns, you need to add ( 이) 건. When the noun ends in a consonant, add 이건, when ending in a vowel , add 건
지원자: applicant 나이: age 많다 : to be a lot 적다 : to be little 상관없다: not to matter 서울 N타워 : Seoul N tower 명동: Myoungdong (a popular shopping area) 아무데나: anywhere 괜찮다: to be fine
지원자가 나이가 많건 적건 상관없어요. (formal) -> Whether the applicants are old or young, it doesn't matter
서울 N타워건 명동이건 아무데나 괜찮아요.(formal) -> Whether it is Seoul N tower or Myoungdong, anywhere is fine ( to go).
32. V -(는) ㄴ 다고 하다 / A -다고 하다 / N(이) 라고 하다 " Indirectly declarative quotation for present tense "
1) When the verb stem ends in a consonant, add 는다고 했어요. When ending in a vowel or ㄹ, add ㄴ 다고 했어요. The contracted form is - 는대요 / -ㄴ대요. Without ‘요’ at the end, it becomes casual talk.
오다 : to come 지금: now
Mike 가 지금 온다고 했어요. (formal) = Mike 가 지금 온대요 ( contracted formal)
-> Mike said he is coming now.
2) For adjectives, add stem to 다고 했어요. The contracted form is -대요. Without ‘요’ at the end, it becomes casual talk.
불고기: Bulgogi ( Korean grilled marinated beef) 맛있다 : to be tasty 음식: food
Mike가 불고기가 맛있다고 했어. (casual) = Mike가 불고기가 맛있대. (contracted casual)
-> Mike said Bulgogi is tasty.
3) For nouns, when ending in a consonant , add 이라고 했어요. When ending in a vowel, add 라고 했어요. The contracted form is -이래요 / -래요. Without ‘요’ at the end, it becomes casual talk.
Mike 가 불고기가 맛있는 음식이라고 했어. (casual) = Mike 가 불고기가 맛있는 음식이래. (contracted casual) ->Mike said Bulgogi is a tasty food.
33. V-자고 하다 " Indirectly suggestive quotation"
Add verb stem to 자고 했어요.
사귀다 : to become a couple 주말: weekend -에 : on ( time marker) 만나다: to meet
Andy 가 사귀자고 했어.(casual) -> Andy said we should become a couple.
Andy 가 주말에 만나자고 했어요. (formal)-> Andy said we should meet on the weekend.
33-1. V-자 “ Let’s V” (casually suggestive ending)
Add verb stem to 자 to suggest to do something together with the speaker. It’s a casual talk.
내일: tomorrow 놀다: to play 가다: go
내일 놀자. ( casual) -> Let’s play tomorrow
가자 (casual) -> Let’s go
가자 (casual) -> Let’s go
34. V-던 N " N that used to V "
Add verb stem or past conjugated form to 던. It is always used in front of nouns.
이거 : this thing 어리다 : to be young 읽다 : to read 책: book 자주: often 듣다: to listen 노래: song
이거 어릴때 읽던 책( or 읽었던 책) 이에요. (formal) -> This is a book that I used to read when I was young.
이거 자주 듣던 노래 ( or 들었던 노래) 야. (casual) -> This is a song I used to listen often.
34-1. This is also used to recollect an action started in the past but still not ended.
제가: I (formal) 보다: to see ( 봤어요: saw)
제가 읽던 책 봤어요? Did you see the book I was reading?
35. V/A-냐고 하다 , N(이)냐고 하다 " Indirectly interrogative quotation"
Add V/A stem to 냐고 했어요. When the noun ends in a consonant, 이냐고 했어요, when ending in a vowel, add 냐고 했어요.
엄마: mom 몇시에: what time 집: home ~에: to ~ 오다: to come 사람들: people 미국사람: American person 물어보다: to ask
엄마가 몇시에 집에 오냐고 했어. (casual) -> Mom asked me what time I would come home.
사람들이 미국사람이냐고 물어봤어요.(formal) -> People asked me If I was an American person.
36. N(이)라도 " at least N” or “ N or something”
This is used to indicate that N is not the best option but that will suffice. When the noun ends in a consonant, add 이라도 .When ending in a vowel, add 라도.
커피: coffee 없다 : not to have - (으) 면 : If - (check G22) 물: water 주세요 : please give
커피 없으면 물이라도 주세요. (formal)-> If you don't have coffee, please give me water at least. (/ water or something)
37.V-(을)ㄹ까 해요. " thinking of (about)- , planning to - " ( Vague intention or plan)
When the verb stem ends in a consonant, add 을까해요. When ending in a vowel or ㄹ, add ㄹ까해요. Its infinitive form is -(을)ㄹ까 하다
다음 달에 : next month 한국: Korea ~에 여행가다: to go on a trip to ~
다음달에 한국에 여행갈까 해요. (formal) -> I am thinking of going on a trip to Korea next month
38. V-는데/ A-(은)ㄴ데 / N-(인) ㄴ데 " but , and"
This is a connective ending . For verbs, add the stem to 는데. For adjectives, add the stem to 은데 when ending in a consonant, add the stem to ㄴ데 when ending in a vowel. For nouns, add the stem to 인데 when ending in a consonant, add the stem to ㄴ데 when ending a vowel.
저는 : (I & topic marker) 노래하다: to sing 못: can't 춤 추다 : to dance 잘: well 배우: actor(actress) 박신혜 (Park Sinhye)
저는 노래 못 하는데 춤 잘 춰요.(formal) -> I can't sing but I dance well.
박신혜는 배운데 춤 잘 춰.(casual) -> Park Sinhye is an actress but dances well.
2) " background situation or reason -> and"
괜찮다: to be ok 가보다 : to try to go
Trick art museum 괜찮은데 가봐.(casual) -> Trick art museum is ok, try it.
3) “ Used as an interrogative ending to slightly oppose or complain to the listener”
내가: I (casual) 뭘: what 잘못 하다: to do something wrong
내가 뭘 잘못했는데? (casual) -> what did I do wrong?
39. V/A -(으) 니까 (same as V/A- (으)니) "since, because , so"
When the stem ends in a consonant, add 으니까 or 으니 . When ending in a vowel or ㄹ, add니까 or 니
미안해요: I am sorry (formal) 이번 주: this week 바쁘다: to be busy 다음 주: next week
미안해. 이번주는 바쁘니까 다음주에 만나자. (casual) -> Sorry. This week I am busy , so next week let's meet .
-> Sorry. Since (Because) this week I am busy, next week let's meet .
오늘: today 피곤하다: to be tired 내일 : tomorrow 하다: to do
오늘 피곤하니 내일 하자. (casual) -> Today, I am tired, so let’s do it tomorrow
39-1. N -(이) 니까 (same as V/A- (이)니) "since, because , so"
When the noun ends in a consonant, add 이니까 or 이니 . When ending in a vowel, add니까 or 니
너: you (casual) 내: my (casual) 친구: friend 비밀: secret 알려주다: to inform , to tell
너는 내 친구니까 비밀을 알려줄게 (casual) -> Since you are my friend, I will tell you a secret
40. N (으)로 " by means of , with , to , toward"
When the noun ends in consonant, add 으로. When ending in vowel orㄹ, add 로.
지하철: subway 가다: to go V -자: let's V 오른쪽: right side 볼펜: ball pen 쓰다: to write V-(으)세요: formal command ending
지하철로 가자: Let's go by subway.
오른쪽으로 가자 : Let's go to the right side.
볼펜으로 쓰세요: Write with a ball pen.
40-1 . N (으)로 "as N "
저는 : I ( formal) , 좋은 친구 : a good friend , 대하다 : to treat ,
저는 마이크를 좋은 친구로 대했어요. : I treated Mike as a good friend.
41. N (이)야 " am/ are/ is N " (casual)
It is used only casually right after nouns. When the noun ends in a consonant, add 이야. When ending in a vowel, add 야. Its infinitive form is (이)다 "to be N"
저N : that N 아이: child 누구: who 내: my 남동생: younger brother 너: your, your
A: 저 아이는 누구야? : Who is that child? B: 내 남동생이야 : He is my younger brother
41-1) The opposite form is N(이/가) 아니야 “ am/ are/ is not N “ (casual)
When the noun end in a consonant, add N이 아니야. When ending in a vowel, add N가 아니야. Its infinitive form is N(이) 아니다 "to not be N"
A: 저 아이는 너 남동생이야? : Is that child your younger brother?
B: 내 남동생이 아니야 : He is not my younger brother
42. A/V -(은) ㄴ/ 는/ (을) ㄹ것 같아요. " I think , It looks ( sounds) like , It appears that "
Without 요 at the end, it becomes a casual talk and its infinitive form is ~것 같다.
1) For adjectives and past tense verbs
When the stem ends in a consonant, add 은 것 같아요. When ending in a vowel or ㄹ, add ㄴ것 같아요.
니: you, your 생각 : idea, thought 좋다 : to be good 시험 보다 : to take a test ( 시험: test, 보다: to see) 잘 : well
니 생각 좋은 것 같아.(casual) -> I think your idea is good
시험 잘 본 것 같아요. (formal) -> I think took the test well.
2) For present tense verbs
Add stem to 는 것 같아요.
좋아하다 : to like
Jeremy가 Sarah를 좋아하는 것 같아요. (formal) -> It looks like Jeremy likes Sarah
3) For future tense verbs
When the stem ends in a consonant, add 을것 같아요. When ending in a vowel or ㄹ, add ㄹ것 같아요.
너무: so 배고프다 : to be hungry 죽다 : to die 그 N: that N 사람: person ~ 없이: without~ 못: can't 살다: to live 재미있다: to be fun, interesting 그거: that thing (that)
너무 배고파서 죽을 것 같아. (casual) -> I am so hungry that I think I'm going to die.
그 사람 없이 못 살 것 같아. (casual) -> I think I won't be able to live without that person.
그거 재미있을 것 같아요. (formal) -> That sounds like fun.
42-1. N 같아요. " I think , S look like
그: that , 남자 : guy , 화장을 하다 : to put on make-up , 여자 : woman
그 남자가 화장을 하니까 여자 같아요. -> Since they guy put on make-up ,he looks like a woman.
43. V- (을) ㄹ N (Future tense of modification)
When the verb stem ends in a consonant, add 을 in front of the noun. When ending in a vowel orㄹ, add ㄹ in front of the noun.
오늘: today 하다: to do 일: things, work 많이 : much / many( adverb) 있다: to have , to exist 이거: this thing (this) 내일: tomorrow 먹다: to eat 거: thing, stuff 나를: me 도와주다: to help 사람: person N뿐: only N
오늘 할 일 많이 있어요.(formal) -> (I) have many things to do.
이거 내일 먹을 거야. (casual) -> This is the the thing to eat tomorrow. ( This is what I am going to eat tomorrow)
나를 도와줄 사람은 Kevin뿐이야.(casual)-> The person to help me is only Kevin.
44. N 에게(한테) " to N "
The nouns should be people or other living creatures . Otherwise, 에 is added to the nouns.
선생님: teacher 내게( a shortened form of 나에게) 나: I , me 한국어: Korean language 가르쳐주다: to teach 선물: gift 드리다: to give(honorific) 아침에 : in the morning 꽃: flower 물: water 주다: to give
Anna 선생님이 내게 한국어를 가르쳐줬어. (casual) -> Anna teacher taught Korean to me.
선생님에게 선물 드릴 거예요. (formal) -> (I) will give a gift to (my) teacher.
아침에 꽃에 물을 줬어. (casual) -> (I) gave water to the flower->(I) watered the flower in the morning.
45. V/A-지요(?) “ Confirming or looking for the listener’s agreement “
Add the stem to 지요. If the speaker intends to ask the listener, raise up the tone at the end. Also, 지요 is usually shortened into 죠. Without 요 at the end, it becomes a casual talk.
당연히: of course 그거: that thing (that) 모르다: not to know (몰랐어요: didn't know) 맛있다: to be tasty 수업: class 재미있다: to be fun, interesting
당연히 그거 몰랐지.( casual) : Of course, I didn't know that.
그거 맛있지요? (formal) : That is tasty, right? / Isn't that tasty?
그 수업 재미있죠? (formal) That class is fun, right? / Isn't that class fun?
46. V-다(가) ~ " As ~ "
This is used to indicate an interruption of an action. Add verb stem to 다가. 다가 can be shortened to -다
걷다: to walk 넘어지다: to fall TV 보다: to watch TV 잠들다: to fall asleep
걷다가 넘어졌어요.(formal) -> As (I) walked, (I) fell.
TV 보다 잠들었어.(casual) -> As (I) watched TV, (I) fell asleep.
47. V/A- (을)ㄹ 까요?
This is used to express the speaker’s supposition of an action or state that has yet to happen and corresponds to “ Will (S) V ?” When the V/A stem ends in a consonant, add 을까요?. When ending in a vowel or ㄹ, add ㄹ 까요? Without 요 at the end, it becomes casual talk.
파티: party N 에 : to N 오다: to come 이번: this (time) 학기: semester 성적: grades 괜찮다: to be OK 어제: yesterday 믿다 : to believe 꿈을 꾸다 : to dream (꿈: dream, noun) 것: thing
Mina 가 파티에 올까? ( casual) -> Will Mina come to the party?
이번 학기 성적 괜찮을까요? (formal) -> Will this semester’s grades be OK?
47-1) Another usage for this is to ask the listener for an opinion.
우리: we 언제: when 만나다: to meet up 왜: why 오다: to come
우리 언제 만날까? ( casual) -> When should we meet up?
왜 Mina 는 안 왔을까요? (formal) -> Why didn’t Mina come?
48. V- 길 바라다 (원하다) “to hope (to want ) to V / to hope ( to want) S V”
Add verb stem to 길 바래요 / 원해요. Actually 길 is a shortened form of 기를, which is a combination of 기 & 를 (object marker). Please refer to K-Grammar # 5 to understand ‘-기’ . By adding 기 to V/A, V/A turns into a noun. Without 요 at the end, it becomes casual talk.
나는: I & topic marker 니가: you & subject marker 진실: the truth 말해주다: to tell
나는 니가 진실을 말해주길 바래.(casual) -> I hope you tell me the truth.
하루 종일: all day long 너와: with you 같이: together 있다: to be 원하다: to want
하루 종일 같이 너와 있길 원해. (casual) -> I want to be with you together all day long.
49. V-고 말다 “ to end up in V-ing “
This is used for an unplanned event or action that finishes in a usually undesirable way. Add verb stem to 고 말았어요 to indicate “ ended up in V-ing “ and to 고 말거예요 to indicate “ will end up in V-ing”. Without 요 at the end, it become causal talk ( 말았어요 -> 말았어,말거예요-> 말거야)
너무: very 아프다: to be sick l 입원하다: to be hospitalized in 지금: now 수술 받다: to have surgery ( 수술: surgery 받다: to receive) 죽다: to die
Angella 는 너무 아파서 입원하고 말았어요.(formal) -> Because Angella was sick she ended up in being hospitalized. ( ~ 서 meaning ‘because’ , refer to G 29)
Angella 가 지금 수술 받지 않으면 죽고 말거야. (casual) -> If Angella doesn’t get a surgery now, she will end up in dying. (~면 meaning ‘If’, refer to G22 )
50. V-는 게/ 걸/ 거/ 것 “ V-ing” (Gerund)
For an action or event related to the present tense, add verb stem to 는 게/ 걸/ 거/ 것 in order to change the verb into a noun. You can use - 게 only in the subject position and 걸 only in the object position. But you can use -거( 것) in the both object and subject positions. For our pronunciation convenience, we usually say 거 instead of clearly ‘것’ . Actually 게/걸/거/것 means a “thing” in English. For example 이게, 이걸, 이거, 이것 mean this thing ( this: 이)
지금 : now 숨 쉬다: to breath 힘들다: to be hard 저는 : I & topic marker (formal) 춤 추다: to dance 좋아하다: to like
지금 숨 쉬는 게 힘들어요. = 지금 숨 쉬는 거 힘들어요= 지금 숨 쉬는 것 힘들어요. (formal)-> Now, breathing is hard (Now, It is hard to breathe.)
저는 춤 추는 걸 좋아해요. = 저는 춤 추는 거 좋아해요.= 저는 춤 추는 것 좋아해요.( formal) -> I like dancing ( I like to dance)
* The examples above are formal talk because of ‘요’ at the end.
50-1) A / V(past tense) - (은) ㄴ게/ 걸/ 거 / 것
For an adjective or action that happened in the past , add 은 게/ 걸/ 거 / 것 when the stem ends in a consonant. When ending in a vowel or ㄹ, add the stem to ㄴ 게/ 걸/ 거/ 것
너를 : you & object marker ~ 보내다: to let go of ~ 후회되다: to be regrettable 저녁: dinner 많이: a lot 먹다: to eat 후회하다: to regret
너를 보낸 게 후회돼= 너를 보낸 거 후회돼. = 너를 보낸 것 후회돼.( casual) -> Letting you go is regrettable.
저녁 많이 먹은 걸 후회해.= 저녁 많이 먹은 거 후회해.= 저녁 많이 먹은 것 후회해.( casual) -> I regret eating a lot of dinner.
50-2) N 인 게/ 걸/ 거 /것 : being N
For nouns, add 은 게/ 걸/ 거 / 것 to the stem
그: that , 사람: person, 한국 사람: Korean person , 모르다: to not know그 사람이 의사인 걸 몰랐어요. = 그 사람이 의사인 거 몰랐어요. = 그 사람이 의사인 것 몰랐어요. -> I didn’t know that he was a doctor.
50-3) A / V stem - (을)ㄹ 게/ 걸/ 거 /것 : ( Future tense)
For an adjective or action that will happen in the future, add 을 게/ 걸/ 거 / 것 when the stem ends in a consonant. When ending in a vowel or ㄹ, add the stem to ㄹ 게/ 걸/ 거/ 것.
N 처럼 : like N , 머리 : head, 깨지다 : to break , 아프다 : to be sick , hurt
머리가 깨질 것 처럼 아파요. : My head hurts like it is going to explode