K-Grammar 26-50

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26. V -지 말라고 하다 " to tell somebody not to V
This is a negative form of indirectly imperative quotation. Add verb stem to 지 말라고 했어요.

선생님: teacher 늦게 : late 오다 : to come
선생님이 늦게 오지 말라고 했어요. (formal)
-> The teacher told me not to come late.  

26-1) Its positive form is V - (으) 라고 하다 " to tell somebody to V"  

When the verb stem ends in a consonant, add 으라고 했어요 . When ending in a vowel or ㄹ,  add 라고 했어요.
친구: friend 빨리: quickly  오다: to come
엄마: mom  이거 : this thing  먹다 : to eat  

친구가 빨리 오라고 했어. (casual)  
-> (My) friend told me to come quickly.
엄마가  이거 먹으라고 했어 (casual)
-> (My) mom told me to eat this.

27. V/A-(으)면 좋겠어요 / N-(이)면 좋겠어요   " I hope ~ "
When the V/A stem ends in a consonant, add 으면 좋겠어요.When ending in a vowel or ㄹ, add 면 좋겠어요. Its infinitive form is -(으) 면 좋겠다.

내일: tomorrow 비 오다 : to rain ( 비- rain, 오다: to come)  (N) 안~: not ~  
내일 비 안오면 좋겠어요. (formal)
-> I hope it is not raining tomorrow.

For nouns, when the noun ends in a consonant, add 이면 좋겠어요. When ending in a vowel, add 면 좋겠어요.

거짓말: a lie   N (이)다: to be N

거짓말이면 좋겠어. (casual)
-> I hope that was a lie.

27-1) Past tense V/A 으면 해요 / N 이었으면 (였으면) 해요  “ I hope ~ “

내일 비 안 왔으면 해요.   
-> I hope it is not raining tomorrow

For nouns, when the noun ends in a consonant, add 이었으면 해요. When ending in a vowel, add 였으면 해요.

거짓말이었으면 해요.
-> I hope that was a lie

28. V- 아/어/해 주세요 " please ~  for me"

Conjugate the verb stem and add 주세요 ( formal), 줘요(polite) or 줘(casual). Its infinitive form is V- 아/어/해 주다.  Plesse refer to 'K - grammar basics'  for conjugation rules.

태우다 : to give a ride   돕다 : to help 전화: phone 번호: number  알려주다 : to inform
태워 줘 (casual) -> Give me a ride.   
태워 줘요.( polite) -> Give me a ride, please.
도와 주세요 ( formal) -> Help me, please
전화번호 알려 줘 ( casual) -> Let me know (your) phone number.

29.V/A - 아서/어서/해서 / N - (이)라서  " and " / “ so, because” ,

Conjugate the verb/ adjective stem and add 서. For nouns , when it ends in a consonant,  add 이라서 . When ending in a vowel , add 라서.  This is a connective ending and has two meanings depending on the context.

1) Sequence ("and") : The first event is placed in the first clause and the second one in the second clause. Two events are closely related.

저기: (over) there 앉다 : to sit  얘기하다 : to talk  ~ 자 : let's (casual)  다음 주에: next week 만나다: to meet  놀다 : to play, to hang (out) with

저기 앉아서 얘기하자. (casual) ->Let's sit and talk over there.

다음주에 만나서 놀자.(casual) ->  Let's meet and play next week.

2) reason & result : the reason is placed in the first clause and the result in the second clause.  

늦다: to be late 죄송합니다:  I'm sorry, I apologize (formal) 좋아하다: to like 한국: Korea ~ 에 관심이 있다 : to be interested in~  많이: a lot

늦어서 죄송합니다.( formal) -> I'm sorry for being late
Kpop을 좋아해서 한국에 관심이 많이 있어. (casual) ->  (I) like Kpop, so (I'm) much interested in Korea. =  Because (I) like Kpop, (I’m) much interested in Korea.

한국 사람 : Korean person , 한국말 : Korean language , 잘 : well

미나는 한국 사람이라서 한국말을 잘 해요. -> Mina is a Korean person, so she is good at Korean language.

30. V/A -지만 " but, however"

Add stem to 지만. This is a connective ending.
한국어: Korean language 어렵다: to be difficult  배우다: to learn  ~ 고 싶다 : to want to

한국어는 어렵지만 배우고 싶어.(casual)
-> Korean is difficult but I want to learn.

31. V/A- 건  V/A -건 ,  N-(이)건 N-(이)건 " whether -  or -  "
Add V/A stem to 건.  In case  you add nouns, you need to add ( 이) 건. When the noun ends in a consonant, add 이건, when ending in a vowel , add  건
지원자: applicant 나이: age 많다 : to be a lot 적다 : to be little 상관없다: not to matter 서울 N타워 : Seoul N tower 명동: Myoungdong (a popular  shopping area) 아무데나: anywhere  괜찮다: to be fine
지원자가 나이가 많건 적건 상관없어요. (formal)  -> Whether the applicants are old or young, it doesn't matter
서울 N타워건 명동이건 아무데나 괜찮아요.(formal) -> Whether it is Seoul N tower or Myoungdong,  anywhere is fine ( to go).
32. V -(는) ㄴ 다고 하다 / A -다고 하다 / N(이) 라고 하다 " Indirectly declarative quotation for present tense "
1) When the verb stem ends in a consonant, add 는다고 했어요. When ending in a vowel or ㄹ, add ㄴ 다고 했어요. The contracted form is - 는대요 / -ㄴ대요. Without ‘요’ at the end, it becomes casual talk.
오다 :  to come  지금: now  
Mike 가 지금 온다고 했어요. (formal)  =  Mike 가 지금 온대요 ( contracted formal)
-> Mike said  he is coming now.
2) For adjectives, add stem to 다고 했어요. The contracted form is -대요.  Without ‘요’ at the end, it becomes casual talk.
불고기: Bulgogi ( Korean grilled marinated beef)  맛있다 : to be tasty  음식: food
Mike가 불고기가 맛있다고 했어. (casual) = Mike가 불고기가 맛있대. (contracted casual)
-> Mike said Bulgogi is tasty.
3) For nouns, when ending in a consonant , add 이라고 했어요. When ending in a vowel, add 라고 했어요. The contracted form is -이래요 / -래요. Without ‘요’ at the end, it becomes casual talk.
Mike 가 불고기가 맛있는 음식이라고 했어. (casual) = Mike 가 불고기가 맛있는 음식이래. (contracted casual) ->Mike said Bulgogi is a tasty food.
33. V-자고 하다 " Indirectly suggestive quotation"
Add verb stem to 자고 했어요.
사귀다 : to become a couple   주말: weekend  -에 : on ( time marker)  만나다: to meet
Andy 가 사귀자고 했어.(casual) -> Andy said we should become a couple.
Andy 가 주말에 만나자고 했어요.  (formal)-> Andy said we should meet on the weekend.
33-1.  V-자  “ Let’s V” (casually suggestive ending)
Add verb stem to 자 to suggest to do something  together with the speaker. It’s a casual talk.
내일: tomorrow  놀다: to play    가다: go
내일 놀자. ( casual) -> Let’s play tomorrow  
가자 (casual) ->  Let’s go
34. V-던 N   " N that used to V "
Add verb stem or past conjugated form  to 던. It is always used in front of nouns.
이거 : this thing   어리다 : to be young  읽다 : to read  책: book  자주: often  듣다: to listen 노래: song
이거 어릴때 읽던 책( or 읽었던 책) 이에요. (formal) -> This is a book that  I used to read when I was young.
이거  자주 듣던 노래 ( or 들었던 노래) 야. (casual) -> This is a song I used to listen often.
34-1. This is also used to recollect an action started in the past but still not ended.
제가: I (formal)   보다: to see ( 봤어요: saw)
제가 읽던 책 봤어요? Did you see the book I was reading?
35. V/A-냐고 하다 , N(이)냐고 하다  " Indirectly interrogative quotation"
Add V/A stem to 냐고 했어요. When the noun ends in a consonant,  이냐고 했어요, when ending in a vowel, add 냐고 했어요.
엄마: mom 몇시에: what time  집: home  ~에: to ~  오다: to come   사람들: people 미국사람: American person 물어보다: to ask
엄마가 몇시에  집에 오냐고 했어. (casual)  -> Mom asked me what time I would come home.
사람들이 미국사람이냐고 물어봤어요.(formal) -> People asked me If I was an American person.
36. N(이)라도 " at least N” or “ N or something”
This is used to indicate that N is not the best option but that will suffice. When the noun ends in a consonant, add 이라도 .When ending in a vowel, add 라도.
커피: coffee 없다 : not to have  - (으) 면 : If -  (check G22)  물: water  주세요 : please give
커피 없으면 물이라도 주세요. (formal)-> If you don't have coffee, please give me water at least. (/  water or something)
37.V-(을)ㄹ까 해요. " thinking of (about)- , planning to - " ( Vague intention or plan)
When the verb stem ends in a consonant, add 을까해요. When ending in a vowel or ㄹ, add ㄹ까해요. Its infinitive form is -(을)ㄹ까 하다
다음 달에 : next month   한국: Korea   ~에 여행가다: to go on a trip to ~
다음달에 한국에 여행갈까 해요. (formal) -> I am thinking of going on a trip to Korea next month
38. V-는데/ A-(은)ㄴ데 / N-(인) ㄴ데 " but , and"  
This is a connective ending . For verbs, add the stem to 는데. For adjectives, add the stem to 은데 when ending in a consonant, add the stem to ㄴ데 when ending in a vowel. For nouns, add the stem to 인데 when ending in a consonant, add the stem to ㄴ데  when ending a vowel.
1) "but"
저는 : (I & topic marker) 노래하다: to sing  못: can't  춤 추다 : to dance  잘: well  배우: actor(actress)  박신혜 (Park Sinhye)
저는 노래 못 하는데 춤 잘 춰요.(formal) -> I can't sing but I dance well.
박신혜는 배운데 춤 잘 춰.(casual) -> Park Sinhye is an actress but dances well.
2) " background situation or reason -> and"
괜찮다: to be ok 가보다 : to try to go
Trick art museum 괜찮은데 가봐.(casual) -> Trick art museum is ok,  try it.
3) “ Used as an interrogative ending  to slightly oppose or complain to the listener”
내가: I (casual)  뭘: what  잘못 하다: to do something wrong
내가 뭘 잘못했는데? (casual) -> what did I do wrong?
39. V/A -(으) 니까 (same as  V/A- (으)니)    "since, because , so"
When the stem ends in a consonant, add 으니까 or 으니  . When ending in a vowel or ㄹ, add니까 or 니
미안해요:  I am sorry (formal)  이번 주: this week  바쁘다: to be busy 다음 주: next week
미안해. 이번주는 바쁘니까 다음주에 만나자. (casual) -> Sorry. This week I am busy , so next week let's meet .
-> Sorry. Since (Because) this week I am busy, next week let's meet .
오늘: today  피곤하다: to be tired  내일 : tomorrow  하다: to do
오늘 피곤하니 내일 하자. (casual) -> Today, I am tired, so let’s do it tomorrow
39-1. N -(이) 니까 (same as  V/A- (이)니)    "since, because , so"
When the noun ends in a consonant, add 이니까 or 이니 . When ending in a vowel, add니까 or 니
너: you (casual) 내: my (casual) 친구: friend  비밀: secret  알려주다: to inform , to tell
너는 내 친구니까  비밀을 알려줄게 (casual) -> Since you are my friend, I will tell you a secret
40. N (으)로 " by means of , with , to , toward"
When the noun ends in consonant, add 으로. When ending in vowel orㄹ, add 로.
지하철: subway  가다: to go  V -자: let's V 오른쪽: right side  볼펜:  ball pen  쓰다: to write  V-(으)세요: formal command ending
지하철로 가자: Let's go by subway.
오른쪽으로 가자 : Let's go to the right side.
볼펜으로 쓰세요: Write with a ball pen.

40-1 . N (으)로  "as N "
저는 : I ( formal) , 좋은 친구 : a good friend , 대하다 : to treat ,
저는 마이크를 좋은 친구로 대했어요. : I treated Mike as a good friend.
41. N (이)야  " am/ are/ is N  " (casual)
It is used only casually right after nouns. When the noun ends in a consonant, add 이야. When ending in a vowel, add 야.  Its infinitive form is (이)다  "to be N"
저N : that N  아이: child 누구: who  내: my 남동생: younger  brother  너: your, your
A: 저 아이는 누구? : Who is that child?            B: 내 남동생이야 : He is my younger brother
41-1) The opposite form is N(이/가) 아니야  “ am/ are/ is not N “ (casual)
When the noun end in a consonant, add N이 아니야. When ending in a vowel, add N가 아니야. Its infinitive form is N(이) 아니다  "to not be N"
A: 저 아이는 너 남동생이야? : Is that child your younger brother?  
B: 내 남동생이 아니야 : He is not my younger brother
42. A/V -(은) ㄴ/ 는/ (을) ㄹ것 같아요. " I think , It looks ( sounds) like , It appears that  "
Without 요 at the end, it becomes a casual talk and its infinitive form is ~것 같다.
1) For adjectives and past tense verbs
When the stem ends in a consonant, add 은 것 같아요. When ending in a vowel or ㄹ, add ㄴ것 같아요.
니: you, your  생각 : idea, thought 좋다 : to be good   시험 보다 : to take a test ( 시험: test, 보다: to see)  잘 : well
니 생각 좋은 것 같아.(casual) -> I think your idea is good
시험 잘 본 것 같아요. (formal) -> I think took the test well.
2) For present tense verbs
Add stem to  는 것 같아요.
좋아하다 : to like  
Jeremy가 Sarah를 좋아하는 것 같아요. (formal) -> It looks like Jeremy likes Sarah
3) For future tense verbs  
When the stem ends in a consonant, add 을것 같아요. When ending in a vowel or ㄹ, add ㄹ것 같아요.
너무: so  배고프다 : to be hungry  죽다 : to die  그 N: that N  사람: person  ~ 없이: without~  못: can't 살다: to live  재미있다: to be fun, interesting   그거: that thing (that)
너무 배고파서 죽을 것 같아. (casual) -> I am so hungry that I think I'm going to die.
그 사람 없이 못 살 것 같아. (casual) -> I think I won't be able to live without that person.
그거 재미있을 것 같아요. (formal) -> That sounds like fun.
42-1. N 같아요. "  I think , S look like
그: that , 남자 : guy , 화장을 하다 : to put on make-up , 여자 :  woman
그 남자가 화장을 하니까 여자 같아요. -> Since they guy put on make-up ,he looks like a woman.
43. V- (을) ㄹ N (Future tense of modification)
When the verb stem ends in a consonant, add  을 in front of the noun. When ending in a vowel orㄹ, add ㄹ in front of the noun.
오늘: today  하다: to do  일: things, work 많이 : much / many( adverb)  있다: to have , to exist   이거: this thing (this) 내일: tomorrow  먹다: to eat 거: thing, stuff  나를: me 도와주다: to help 사람: person  N뿐: only N
오늘 할 일 많이 있어요.(formal) ->  (I) have many things to do.
이거 내일 먹을 거야. (casual) ->  This is the the thing to eat tomorrow. ( This is what I am going to eat tomorrow)
나를 도와줄 사람은 Kevin뿐이야.(casual)-> The person to help me is only Kevin.
44. N 에게(한테) " to N "  
The nouns should be people or other living creatures . Otherwise, 에 is added to the nouns.
선생님: teacher  내게( a shortened form of 나에게) 나: I , me  한국어: Korean language 가르쳐주다: to teach 선물: gift 드리다: to give(honorific)  아침에 : in the morning 꽃: flower  물: water 주다: to give
Anna 선생님이 내게 한국어를 가르쳐줬어. (casual) -> Anna teacher taught Korean to me.
선생님에게 선물 드릴 거예요. (formal) -> (I) will give a gift  to (my) teacher.
아침에 꽃에 물을 줬어. (casual) -> (I) gave water to the flower->(I) watered the flower in the morning.
45. V/A-지요(?) “ Confirming  or looking for the listener’s agreement “
Add the stem to 지요. If the speaker intends to ask the listener,  raise up the tone at the end. Also, 지요 is usually shortened into 죠.  Without 요 at the end, it becomes a casual talk.
당연히: of course 그거: that thing (that)  모르다: not to know  (몰랐어요: didn't know) 맛있다: to be tasty 수업: class 재미있다: to be fun, interesting
당연히 그거 몰랐지.( casual) : Of course, I didn't know that.
그거 맛있지요? (formal) : That is tasty, right? / Isn't that tasty?
그 수업 재미있죠? (formal)  That class is fun, right? / Isn't that class fun?
46.  V-다(가) ~   " As  ~ "
This is used to indicate an interruption of an action. Add verb stem to 다가. 다가 can be shortened to -다
걷다: to walk  넘어지다: to fall  TV 보다: to watch TV   잠들다: to fall asleep
걷다가 넘어졌어요.(formal) -> As (I) walked, (I) fell.
TV 보다 잠들었어.(casual) -> As (I) watched TV, (I) fell asleep.
47.  V/A- (을)ㄹ 까요?  
This is used to express the speaker’s supposition of an action or state that has yet to happen and corresponds to “ Will (S) V ?”  When the V/A stem ends in a consonant, add 을까요?. When ending in a vowel or ㄹ, add ㄹ 까요? Without 요 at the end, it becomes casual talk.
파티: party   N 에 : to  N  오다: to come  이번: this (time)  학기: semester  성적: grades  괜찮다: to be OK  어제: yesterday 믿다 : to believe 꿈을 꾸다 : to dream (꿈: dream, noun)  것: thing
Mina 가 파티에 올까? ( casual) -> Will Mina come to the party?
이번 학기 성적 괜찮을까요? (formal)  -> Will this semester’s grades be OK?
47-1) Another usage for this is to ask the listener for an opinion.
우리: we  언제: when  만나다: to meet up  왜: why  오다: to come  
우리 언제 만날까? ( casual) ->  When should we meet up?
왜 Mina 는 안 왔을까요? (formal) -> Why didn’t Mina come?
48. V- 길 바라다 (원하다) “to hope (to want ) to V / to hope ( to want)  S V”
Add verb stem to 길 바래요 / 원해요.  Actually 길 is a shortened form of 기를, which is a combination of 기 & 를 (object marker). Please refer to K-Grammar # 5 to understand ‘-기’ . By adding 기 to V/A,  V/A turns into a noun. Without 요 at the end, it becomes casual talk.
나는: I & topic marker  니가: you & subject marker 진실: the truth   말해주다: to tell  
나는 니가 진실을 말해주길 바래.(casual) ->  I hope you tell me the truth.
하루 종일: all day long  너와: with you  같이: together  있다: to be   원하다: to want
하루 종일 같이 너와 있길 원해. (casual) -> I want to be with you together all day long.
49. V-고 말다 “ to end up in V-ing “
This is used for an unplanned event or action that finishes in a usually undesirable way. Add verb stem to 고 말았어요 to indicate “ ended up in V-ing “ and  to 고 말거예요 to indicate “ will end up in V-ing”. Without 요 at the end, it become causal talk ( 말았어요 -> 말았어,말거예요-> 말거야)
너무: very  아프다: to be sick  l  입원하다: to be hospitalized in   지금: now 수술 받다: to have surgery ( 수술: surgery 받다: to receive)  죽다: to die
Angella 는 너무 아파서 입원하고 말았어요.(formal) ->  Because Angella was sick she ended up in being hospitalized. ( ~ 서 meaning ‘because’ , refer to G 29)
Angella 가 지금 수술 받지 않으면 죽고 말거야. (casual) -> If Angella doesn’t get a surgery now, she will end up in dying.  (~면 meaning ‘If’, refer to G22 )
50.  V-는 게/ 걸/ 거/ 것 “ V-ing” (Gerund)
For an action or event related to the present tense, add verb stem to 는 게/ 걸/ 거/ 것 in order to change the verb into a noun. You can use - 게 only in the subject position and 걸 only in the object position. But you can use -거( 것) in the both object and subject positions. For our pronunciation convenience, we usually say 거 instead of clearly ‘것’ . Actually 게/걸/거/것 means a “thing” in English. For example 이게, 이걸, 이거, 이것 mean this thing ( this: 이)
지금 : now  숨 쉬다: to breath  힘들다: to be hard  저는 : I & topic marker (formal)  춤 추다: to dance  좋아하다: to like
지금 숨 쉬는 게 힘들어요. = 지금 숨 쉬는 거 힘들어요= 지금 숨 쉬는 것 힘들어요. (formal)->  Now, breathing is hard (Now,  It is hard to breathe.)
저는 춤 추는 걸 좋아해요. = 저는 춤 추는 거 좋아해요.= 저는 춤 추는 것 좋아해요.( formal) ->    I like dancing ( I like to dance)
* The examples above are formal talk because of ‘요’ at the end.
50-1) A / V(past tense) - (은) ㄴ게/ 걸/ 거 / 것
For an adjective or action that happened in the past , add 은 게/ 걸/ 거 / 것 when the stem ends in a consonant.  When ending in a vowel or ㄹ, add the stem to ㄴ 게/ 걸/ 거/ 것
너를 : you & object marker  ~ 보내다: to let go of  ~    후회되다: to be regrettable   저녁: dinner   많이: a lot  먹다: to eat   후회하다: to regret
를 보낸 게 후회돼= 너를 보낸 거 후회돼. = 너를 보낸 것 후회돼.( casual)  -> Letting you go is regrettable.
저녁 많이 먹은 걸 후회해.= 저녁 많이 먹은 거 후회해.= 저녁 많이 먹은 것 후회해.( casual) ->  I regret eating a lot of dinner.

50-2) N 인 게/ 걸/ 거 /것 : being N
For nouns, add 은 게/ 걸/ 거 / 것  to the stem
그: that , 사람: person, 한국 사람: Korean person , 모르다: to not know
그 사람이 의사인 걸 몰랐어요. =  그 사람이 의사인 거 몰랐어요. = 그 사람이 의사인 것 몰랐어요. -> I didn’t know that he was a doctor.

50-3)  A / V stem - (을)ㄹ 게/ 걸/ 거 /것 :  ( Future tense)
For an adjective or action that will happen in the future,  add 을  게/ 걸/ 거 / 것 when the stem ends in a consonant.  When ending in a vowel or ㄹ, add the stem to ㄹ  게/ 걸/ 거/ 것.
N 처럼 : like N , 머리 : head, 깨지다 : to break , 아프다 : to be sick , hurt
머리가 깨질 것 처럼 아파요. : My head hurts like it is going to explode


Angelina Scabbia said...

This is amazing, thank you so much for doing this!

11newcon said...

Thank you so much for your comment.

Spencer said...

All the other grammar resources I've found online have been quite dense, by comparison. Reading the principals here has really helped. Thank you!

I still haven't checked out any actual Kpop since I started. Only because there's been a lot of great (lyrical) Korean music to explore otherwise.

Great work here. Thanks (again.)

Margaux Johanna said...
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Korean thru K-POP said...

Thank you for your support ^^

Gülşen Çam said...