Before you start to understand K-Pop lyrics like the way we Korean people enjoy, here are a few basic things u need to know about Korean Grammar which are very different from English.
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1. Korean sentence structure : The verb comes last , so going backward from English is likely to be understood well.
Eng) I study Korean ( S V O)
Kor) 저는 한국어를 공부해요. ( I Korean study - S O V )
2. We have markers.
1) Topic (Comparison) Marker : 는/ 은
( When the topic syllable ends in a vowel, add 는 . When ending in a consonant, add 은)
2) Object Marker : 를/ 을
( When the object syllable ends in a vowel, add 를 . When ending in a consonant, add 을)
저는 한국어를 공부해요. ( I Korean study)
선생님은 운동을 해요 ( Teacher exercise does)
3) Subject Marker : 가/ 이
( When the subject syllable ends in a vowel, add 가 . When ending in a consonant, add 이 )
제가 한국 사람이에요. ( I Korean person am)
선생님이 미국사람이에요. ( Teacher American person is)
한국사람: Korean person , 미국사람 : American person ~이에요 : is, am, are~
4-1) Place Markers (in or at) : N 에 / N에서
When the verb of a sentence is a state verb, N에 is used to mean 'in N' or 'at N '.
학교: school 도서관: library 있어요: exist, (is, am, are) 공부해요: study
Paul이 학교에 있어요. -> Paul school at is -> Paul is at school.
But when the verb is an action verb , which is most of the case, N에서 is used to mean 'in N' or 'at N'
Paul이 도서관에서 공부해요. -> Paul the library in studies. -> Paul studies in the library.
4-2) Place Markers ( to / from) : N에 / N에서
When there are action verbs like ‘ come’ and ‘go’, N에 means ‘to N’ and N에서 means ‘from N’
학교: school 가요: go 미국: America 왔어요: came
Paul 이 학교에 가요. : Paul school to goes. -> Paul goes to school.
Paul이 미국에서 왔어요. : Paul America from came -> Paul came from America ( Also, this means that Paul is from America)
3. Conjugation of Verbs and Adjectives
Korean verbs and adjectives are conjugated according to tense, politeness level , passive and causative forms, and speech styles. (FYI, Kpop lyrics usually have causal endings and words rather than formal ones.)
Base form ( infinitive form ending in 다)
ex) 가 다 ( stem word ending): to go
-> 가요 ( present tense formal ending): go
-> 가 ( present tense casual ending): go
-> 갔어요 ( past tense formal ending): went
-> 갔어 ( past tense causal ending) : went
Ending in 요 means formal speech and there are rules about how to conjugate depending on the stems.
1) The verb ending in 하다 ( to do) becomes 해요
공부하다 -> 공부해요
to study( to do studying) -> study
2) If the stem has ' ㅏ' or 'ㅗ' vowel , add 아요 to the stem to form the present tense
가다 ( to go) -> 가아요 -> *가요 (go)
살다 (to live) -> 살아요 (live)
보다 ( to see) -> 보아요 -> * 봐요 ( * see)
3) Add 어요 to all other stems to form the present tense
먹다 ( to eat) -> 먹어요 (eat)
마시다 ( to drink) ->마시어요 -> * 마셔요 (drink)
주다 ( to give) -> 주어요-> * 줘요 ( give)
* the usual form when saying it fast
4. Connecting Sentences
1) Use conjunctive adverbs like 그리고 ( and, also) , 그렇지만 ( but) , 그래서 (so/therefore)
2) Use conjunctive endings
1) 저는 한국어를 공부해요. 그리고 Kpop을 들어요.
2) 저는 한국어를 공부하고 Kpop 을 들어요.
한국어: Korean language 공부해요: study 들어요: listen
1) I Korean study. Also Kpop listen (Kor)
2) I Korean study and Kpop listen (Kor)
1) I study Korean. Also I listen to Kpop. (Eng)
2) I study Korean and listen to Kpop.(Eng)
'고' takes the infinitive stem ( 공부하- ) while '서' takes the conjugated form (공부해-) instead of the infinitive form.
1) 저는 한국어를 자주 공부해요. 그래서 단어를 많이 알아요.
2) 저는 한국어를 자주 공부해서 단어를 많이 알아요.
자주 : often 공부해요: study 단어: words 많이 : a lot 알아요 : know
1) I Korean often study. Therefore words a lot know (Kor)
2) I Korean often study so words a lot know (Kor)
1) I often study Korean. Therefore I know a lot of words. (Eng)
2) I often study Korean so I know a lot of words. (Eng)
5. When pronouns are obvious, we usually don't say them .
Casual talk example)
A: 매일 한국어 공부해? ( everyday Korean study? ) -> Do u study Korean everyday?
B: 응. 재미있어 ( Yes. Fun) -> Yes. It is fun.